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the exchange of information in an ORGANIZATION. For organizations to work effectively, it is vital that information be communicated to those who need it. For example, the pay department would not be able to function properly if it were not notified of employees' hours of work. In this sense organizations can be conceived of as systems for exchanging information. Withholding information, i.e. failure to communicate, can be an effective means of exerting power over others in the organization. If a manager is not fully aware of what is going on in the organization he or she may be unable to influence decisions or events.

Often the effective transmission of information is impeded. As a piece of information is passed from top to bottom of an organization it may be modified by the misinterpretation or bias of each individual involved, so that by the time the information reaches its final destination it has a very different content. Effective communication can also be time-consuming, and hence arduous to perform. However, the effort can be worthwhile since those employees who feel they are not fully informed about matters relevant to their job may become demotivated and dissatisfied. As a result performance suffers. There is also evidence that individuals are more likely to respect bosses who they feel keep them informed. In addition to these ‘behavioural’ aspects of communication the process or ‘technology’ of internal and external communication has changed dramatically in the last decade. For example, conventional telephone systems (based on fixed-wired handsets) have been increasingly augmented by the cordless (mobile) telephone and accessories such as VOICE MESSAGING. Moreover, many businesses have integrated their PC (personal computer) networks and telecommunications to take advantage of value-added network services such as ELECTRONIC MAIL, VIDEO CONFERENCING and ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE. These developments, while enhancing the immediacy and effectiveness of communications, have also facilitated flexibility and mobility, allowing staff to reduce their dependency on being physically present at an office in order to conduct business. See CONSULTATION, EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT, EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION, INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY, COMMUNITY CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL SOCIAL RIGHTS, DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION, INFORMATION MANAGEMENT, INFORMATION HIGHWAY, BUSINESS PROCESS RE-ENGINEERING.

References in periodicals archive ?
The goals for each of us, especially in professional communications, are to always be conscious of both what we intend to communicate and what it may be perceived that we are communicating, and to be articulate, purposeful, and concise: articulate because we should be able to communicate what we want/need to communicate in a clear manner with little doubt as to the meaning; purposeful because we need to communicate with a goal in mind of what the communication needs to achieve; and concise because we are all busy, and excess verbiage has the potential to cqnfuse and even bore the person to whom we are communicating.
The following section presents guidelines and strategies that can assist school counselors with the challenging task of communicating bad news to parents.
These openings feature her directly communicating with the viewers and studio audience, or with a video that introduces the topic with a pre-recorded voiceover.
Last, but certainly not least, is communicating with your "customers.
I predict that every physician will choose to connect his or her office to a communicating health infonnation network based on the World Wide Web standards in the next few years.
On the other hand, if these two people were genuinely committed to communicating and absolutely unafraid and unresistant to hearing any kind of truths whatsoever or to facing any kinds of conflict, then open discussion would not aggravate their problems.
people is presented, as are easily learned skills that are effective in communicating with deaf people in general.
The seamless integration between Veriphy and PowerScribe will provide radiologists and clinical pathologists with a single, user-friendly interface for both communicating critical patient findings and for reporting test results," said Peter White, co-founder and CEO of Vocada.
As a result, extensive training was needed to ensure all internal employees were communicating the same consistent message to rural residents, business owners and community leaders across the country.
They genuinely don't understand why communicating these simple messages should cost so much money.
18] Currently, investigators use interviewees' eye movements as another possible indicator of their preferred manner of communicating.
Sometimes, though, communicating with the hearing can be frustrating.

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