The results revealed that hypothesis 1.2 is accepted, which indicates that the less individualistic (more collectivistic
) a society is, the higher the level of corruption.
These results are also supported by evidence from facial expression literature (86,87), illustrating that individuals with collectivistic
backgrounds tend to control (e.g., mask or neutralize) the display of their feelings more than individuals in samples from individualistic societies do.
For example, if they feel that this software is going to be popular, then they will be excited to get on board; but if they feel it is a waste of time, then really you wouldn't blame them for not wanting to waste their time." In our fieldwork, we further found, also consistent with prior literature (Oyserman, Coon, & Kemmelmeier, 2002), that the rural region is more collectivistic
. Resource sharing is value based.
managers have innovative ideas and seek some desired changes in the organizations but due to conformity with others they are unable to implement them and they may feel less satisfied whereas individualistic managers may feel easy to implement innovative ideas necessary for the business's existence and growth.
Both influence processes have been identified and described in a collectivistic
Since members of collectivistic
cultures value the cohesiveness of in-groups and are more concerned with group membership, it has been demonstrated that collectivistic
websites have more discussion forums, newsletter subscriptions, loyalty programs, and family themes such as family photos and pictures of teams of employees than those of individualistic websites      -.
Also, in the present study the effect of frailty was always higher than the effect of isolation: Even in a collectivistic
culture, personal resources are given more importance than social resources for judging stress.
(2008) studied cheating behavior in Middle East universities--specifically, in Lebanon--finding that cheating is frequent and that the role of peer behavior is particularly important in Lebanon, which is considered to have a collectivistic
Often in such social structures that is in collectivistic
societies individuals are ignored their rights subdued and expected to confirm to certain group norms.
In contrast, collectivistic
societies tend to contextualize information, seeking connections and patterns between subjects and topics, and to prioritize the context in which events occur (Ji, et al., 2000; Martusewicz, et al., 2011; Macias, 1989; More, 1989; Nisbett, et al., 2001; Oyserman, 2011; Pewewardy, 2002).
Thus, based on a cultural perspective, the negative effects of materialism on one's well-being are moderated by culture, with materialism viewed as a greater cause of unhappiness in collectivistic
than in individualistic cultures.
On the contrary, collectivistic
culture's social behavior is determined largely by goals shared with some collective group and in conflicts, collective goals are placed ahead of personal goals.