1995) proposed that measuring these four constructs is a more desirable method than either the more abstract constructs of individualism and collectivism
, or the basic elements of these constructs such as family integrity, self-reliance, and hedonism.
High institutional collectivism
societies tend to reward prioritizing the group's needs over individual needs, encouraging group loyalty, and rewarding seniority.
perceiving the self as part of a collective being but perceiving all the members of that collective as equal.
Triandis (1995) further introduced the four typologies of horizontal collectivism
, horizontal individualism, vertical collectivism
, and vertical individualism, in which vertical poles signify a hierarchy whereas horizontal poles signify equality.
Although this evidence indicates that individualism and collectivism
are indeed related to ambivalent sexism, no firm conclusion can be drawn from such apparently contradictory data.
Is it any wonder that racism and other forms of collectivism
are on the rise?
It also has rotting effects on the intellect of the originator: "Like every other form of collectivism
, racism is a quest for the unearned," Rand wrote.
In addition to bargaining power, institutional collectivism
values was marginally related to overall initiation and significantly related to the engaging decision, consistent with Hypothesis 2.
Specifically, I hypothesized that individualism and affirmation would contribute significantly to spiritual transcendence for European Americans (Hypothesis 2a) and collectivism
, exploration, and resolution would contribute significantly to spiritual transcendence for Asian Indian Americans and Chinese Americans (Hypothesis 2b).
The findings of the GLOBE study has evolved with nine cultural dimensions which are Performance Orientation, Future Orientation, Gender Egalitarianism, Assertiveness, Institutional Collectivism
, In-Group Collectivism
, Power Distance, Humane Orientation and Uncertainty Avoidance.
The second interaction effect indicated that, at lower levels of direct communication, the high collectivism
group had lower ratings of session smoothness compared with the low collectivism
The study surveyed more than 1000 individuals between the ages of 17-35 in urban areas in India in an effort to understand the effects of socio-cultural factors of work and family collectivism
and in turn psychological career resources on career aspiration.