Jae, "Recognizing extrahepatic collateral vessels
that supply hepatocellular carcinoma to avoid complications of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization," Radiographics, vol.
(1) Collateral vessels
(most commonly the lenticulostriate and thalamoperforator arteries) hypertrophy to compensate for the stenosis.
Susen et al., "Metabolic syndrome and collateral vessel
formation in patients with documented occluded coronary arteries: association with hyperglycaemia, insulin-resistance, adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1," European Heart Journal, vol.
March, "The role of foot collateral vessels
on ulcer healing and limb salvage after successful endovascular and surgical distal procedures according to an angiosome model," Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol.
A validated unique scoring system has been used to quantify the collateral vessels
based on their size (collateral vessel
grades 0 to 4) and collateral number (collateral vessel
categories 0 to 3) in proximal, mid, and distal regions of the afflicted thigh and leg.
Blood flow in the left subclavian vein to the left internal jugular vein is interrupted, while inflow of contrast medium is noted into the right subclavian vein via a collateral vessel
(arrowhead in (a)).
Ay et al., "Collateral vessels
on CT angiography predict outcome in acute ischemic stroke.," Stroke, vol.
Erguzel et al., "Diabetes mellitus and female gender are the strongest predictors of poor collateral vessel
development in patients with severe coronary artery stenosis," Angiogenesis, vol.
There is no evidence regarding effectiveness of exercising on collateral vessel
growth, however, there is evidence showing that collateral vessel
growth in animals is accelerated when coronary arteries are blocked.
For this reason, there is stronger correlation between coronary collateral vessel
development and L-arginine/ADMA ratio than being with ADMA (24).
It was shown that exercise and high dose statin usage increases collateral vessel
development (3, 4).
Asymmetric dimethylarginine and coronary collateral vessel