The Newcastle--Ottawa Scale was used to assess study quality,  with a score of 7 or more considered to reflect high-quality scores with case--control and cohort design
, and a score less than 7 was considered as low-quality scores (maximum score could be 9 considering these two study designs).
In brief, the original study used a retrospective, prepost cohort design
with a nonequivalent control group at four VA medical centers (VAMCs).
(13-16) All four studies used the prospective cohort design
with the vast majority of participants followed for five years or more.
The retrospective cohort design
of the study is a potential limitation.
METHODS: Using a matched cohort design
, we assembled an operative cohort of women 18-44 years of age undergoing laparoscopy or laparotomy at 14 participating clinical centers from 2007 to 2009 and a population-based cohort matched on age and residence within a 50-mile catchment area of the clinical centers.
In fact, it is more than four times the average change in consumption observed in the data." In stating this, they confuse a secular trends analysis (i.e., changes in a population) with a cohort design
such as ours that examines individuals over time.
Such studies may be retrospective (case-controlled design) or prospective (cohort design
We present here a study that was part of a larger prospective cohort design
carried out in Cali, Colombia, which included environmental evaluations and assessment of health effects of the municipal waste disposal site, the Navarro waste disposal site (NWDS), in three age groups: 0-3, 1-5 and >50 years of age.
"Future studies with a longitudianl cohort design
should go further to measure the mortality and life expectancy among women who are victims of intimate-partner violence," Dr.
Application of a hierarchical linear model to the study of adolescent deviance in an overlapping cohort design
. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 941-951.