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population

  1. the total number of people resident in a country at a particular point in time. The UK, for example, had a population of 59 million people in 2004. The size of the population is determined by past and present birth and death rates, together with net migration trends – the number of people leaving the country to live abroad (emigration) compared with the number entering the country to take up residence (immigration). The UK birth rate is currently 11 births per 1000 of the population per annum and the death rate 10 per 1000 of the population per annum. In most advanced countries, both birth and death rates have declined over the long run because of rising living standards and improved medical care; this has produced slow-growing, ageing populations.

    The total size of the population and its composition in terms of proportion of males to females and age-group distributions, combined with various SOCIOECONOMIC factors influencing buying characteristics, are important to businesses in assessing the market potential for their products.

  2. all possible observations of a certain phenomenon in statistical analysis, for example incomes of all people resident in a country. Where it is too time-consuming and expensive to record all possible observations it is necessary to take a SAMPLE, for example the incomes of 1000 citizens, and generalize about the incomes of all citizens from this sample. See STATISTICAL INFERENCE.
Populationclick for a larger image
Fig. 144 Population. The UK birth and death rates, measured in numbers per 1,000 of the population, from 1740 to 2004.

population

the total number of people resident in a country. The size of the population is determined by past and present BIRTH RATES and DEATH RATES as well as MIGRATION trends. In most advanced industrial countries, both birth and death rates have declined over the long run (see DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION), which has produced slow-growing populations. The size and growth of a country's population determine the size of the LABOUR FORCE that is available to produce output, a country's GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT divided by its population providing a measure of the country's general prosperity (see INCOME PER HEAD). In 2004 the UK's population was 59 million (see Fig. 144 ). By comparison, the population of Germany was 82 million, the USA 288 million, Japan 127 million, India 1,048 million and China 1,281 million.
References in periodicals archive ?
2008: Closed population estimation models and their extensions in program MARK.--Environmental and Ecological Statistics 15: 89-99.
One possible reason for this discord is the special breeding and mating history of the closed population of A.
These models were developed for closed populations and assume that the sampled population does not change during the course of the study.
Using the data from the two simulated removal data sets, we showed that frequent sampling of closed populations resulted in rapidly declining sample sizes (SRemCaps, Table 2A, B).
Closed populations whose per-capita finite growth rates remain below unity will deterministically reach such critically low densities [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 1A OMITTED].
Eight closed population models seemed potentially relevant to community ecology estimation under this kind of sampling scheme, and they differed in their assumptions about sources of variation in "detection probability" (analogous to capture probability).
The closed population model produced significantly higher density estimates than did the open population model for 2-yr-old juveniles during 1993, and for 2-yr and 3-yr-old juveniles during 1994 (t-test, t = 4.44, P = 0.0012).
1991: Estimating closed population size and number of marked animals from sighting data.--Journal of Wildlife Management 55: 718-730.
In epidemiologic theory, the critical community size is the minimum size of a closed population within which a pathogen can persist indefinitely (20).
Two characteristics of the plant and these censuses suggested that models for estimating the size of populations, and in particular closed population models, might be appropriate for our data.
This program assumes a closed population, tests that assumption, and selects an appropriate estimator from a set of eight models.