Historical prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and the shift from Infibulation to clitoridectomy
and non Circumcision in Sudan.
It becomes evident that clitoridectomy
is one of the means through which the suppression of female sexuality is effected.
In Africa, over 85 percent of genital mutilation consists of clitoridectomy
Labeling a child a girl does not require a clitoridectomy
," she says.
18] However, female circumcision has not been unique to Africa and Asia To "cure" female nervousness and masturbation, clitoridectomy
was performed on European and American women and girls during the nineteenth century and as recently as the 1940s.
I am here thinking of women's struggles against clitoridectomy
and other forms of genital and physical mutilation also regarded as cultural initiation, made possible by a rejection of the enculturation of the body, by essentializing it purposefully.
There are few quicker ways of being evicted from an Egyptian cafe than by talking loudly about clitoridectomy
Infibulation and clitoridectomy
are widespread practices in the Muslim regions of the Sudan, and the English resolved to eradicate the practice, whether motivated by public health considerations or the "civilizing" mission.
controversy, which gained prominence during the Kenyan anticolonial struggle, especially in the 1930s, can be taken as a case in point.
For instance, severe clitoridectomy
may result in bleeding and death if the word is not sutured.
the main point is this: infibulation--not clitoridectomy
, not male circumcision--was widely thought to impede procreation [and] the colonial government's desire [was] to foster population growth in the riverain north with the aim of creating a sufficient and tractable workforce to support the production of cotton" (p.
81) The four forms of genital cutting usually mentioned are: (1) clitoridectomy
(also known as "sunna"), whereby the clitoral prepuce is cut and all or part of the clitoris is removed; (2) excision, whereby the clitoris and all or parts of the inner labia are removed; (3) infibulation (also known as "pharaonic mutilation"), whereby the clitoris and most of the labia are removed and what remains is stitched so as to leave a small opening for urine; and (4) pricking the clitoris and/or labia, sometimes accompanied by stretching of the clitoris and/or labia (see Angela Wasunna, "Towards Redirecting the Female Circumcision Debate: Legal, Ethical and Cultural Considerations" (2000) 5 McGill J.