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These novel findings suggest that chronic exposure to extreme temperature throughout pregnancy maybe more important than previously thought, but the existence of a critical window of chronic exposure is not clear, and we encourage further investigation of this topic.
Bioenergetics and Performance Adaptations to Chronic Exposure to Altitude
Holmes et al (14) describe the genetic and epigenetic, mechanisms associated with Cr-induced carcinogenesis while Mazumder (15) presents an overview on carcinogeneic and non-carcinogenic effects upon chronic exposure to As.
The carcinogenic effect of chronic exposure to very hot liquids on the throat is lower for those whose diets are rich in fruits, vegetables, and grains; but the risk is even higher for heavy drinkers and smokers.
Chronic exposure to noise has been shown to be harmful to children of various ages.
It is well documented that chronic exposure to these contaminants poses a serious respiratory hazard to city residents, especially to seniors and children,'' they wrote, noting that the state Air Resources Board last month classified diesel as a toxic air contaminant.
For most, it is simply part of t process aggravated by an acute episode of injury or chronic exposure to any of a encountered at work or play.
Chronic exposure to sunlight is the cause of almost all basal cell carcinomas, which occur most frequently on exposed parts of the body -- the face, ears, neck, scalp, shoulders, and back.
Early brain development can also be impacted by what's known as toxic stress, or chronic exposure to severe stress over a long period of time.
Chronic exposure to stress hormones stimulates the growth of fat cells, Mary Teruel of Stanford University reported December 16.
Objective: Drug addiction is a maladaptive form of experience-dependent plasticity that develops following chronic exposure to drugs of abuse.
Leader Professor Elvira de Mejia said: "If you eat a lot of vegetables throughout your life, you'll have chronic exposure to bioactive flavonoids, which help reduce the risk of cancer.

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