Bruhl et al., "Persistent expression of BMP-4 in embryonic chick adrenal cortical cells and its role in chromaffin cell
development," Neural Development, vol.
Glomus cells of the carotid body, such as chromaffin cells
of fetal adrenal medulla, are specialized in sensing local oxygen tension in mammals  and can undergo anatomical changes if exposed to chronic hypoxia .
Undiagnosed chromaffin cell
tumors can present with life-threatening complications for both the mother and fetus.
The cells, called chromaffin cells
, have large vesicles, 200 nanometers (nm) across.
(For example, paragangliomas of the adrenal medulla are pheochromocytomas, and paragangliomas of the carotid bifurcation are carotid body tumors.) Lesions may occur in multiples along the extra-adrenal chromaffin cell
system; 40%-50% of all patients with an autosomal dominant familial variant will demonstrate multiple lesions.
(41.) Lazorthes Y, Sagen J, Sallerin B, Tkaczuk J et al, "Human Chromaffin Cell
Graft into the CSF for Cancer Pain Management: A Prospective Phase II Clinical Study", Pain, 2000, Jul.; 87(1): 19-32.
Thus, the chromaffin cell
plasticity is analogous to neuronal degeneration of hippocampal neurons and apoptosis of lymphocytes.
In this syndrome, patients develop polycythemia at a later age relative to HIF2A mutation carriers, but they appear to have a similar high risk of recurrent chromaffin cell
tumors, especially PGL [17, 53].
Mediastinal paragangliomas are extra adrenal chromaffin cell
tumours that account for fewer than 10% of all mediastinal neuroendocrine tumours.2 They represent only 2% of all catecholamine secreting tumours of the body and 0.3% of all mediastinal tumours.2 Paragangliomas maybe functional, if they synthesize and secrete catecholamines or non functional, if they synthesize but donot secrete catecholamines.3
tumors that produce significant amounts of metanephrine alone, or in combination with normetanephrine, almost always have an adrenal location or reflect recurrence of a previous adrenal tumor (73).
Certain reports contend that this chromaffin cell
therapy approach would have had problems clinically  with or without the clinically tested microencapsulation  that surrounded the grafts to prevent immune rejection .
Resection of chromaffin cell
tumor will completely relieve the symptoms.