Both findings suggest that childlessness
bias against women may not occur in isolation but may coexist and intersect with other identity variables.
Morgan, 2009, <<Representations of Voluntary Childlessness
in the UK Press, 1990-2008>>, Journal of Health Psychology, 14, 8:1218-1228.
Figure 4 shows the cumulated cohort rates for childlessness
and breast cancer within ages 50-54.
She is compelled to ignite Brick's sexuality by saying him how his brother and his sister-in-law proudly make fun of Brick's childlessness
in front of their children.
Even as fertility interventions have been normalized and gained greater acceptability, involuntary childlessness
Meanwhile, rates of childlessness
declined by 32% for women with doctorate or professional degrees.
Keywords: men, fatherhood, childlessness
, multi-partner fertility, Norway
In Balkan societies the taboo against childlessness
is especially strong.
is now commonly treated using in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) programmes, although the process involved is usually a long and frustrating one for the couples involved, with a four to five year wait for successful pregnancy for most.
among women aged 65 and older in 2005 ranged from less than 8% in the Czech Republic to 15% in Austria and Italy.
It usually means involuntary childlessness
due to difficulties in conceiving Rice (1995).
Other negative concepts connected with fertility or infertility are miscarriage and childlessness
, and these are part of the world of the Ancient Near East and of the Hebrew Bible.