matrix

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Related to cartilage matrix: perichondrium, endochondral ossification, bone matrix
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Fig. 58 Matrix. The matrix structure.

matrix

an ORGANIZATION structure in which individuals report to managers in more than one DEPARTMENT or function. The simple CHAIN OF COMMAND found in the classic BUREAUCRACY is replaced by (potentially) a multiplicity of reporting relationships. This type of structure may characterize part of the organization – for project team management for instance, where a project manager assumes authority over team members drawn from a number of departments – or it may extend to the entire organization. See Fig. 58.

There is no standard form of matrix. Managers may have equal formal authority over subordinates or alternatively one of these may have primary authority with the others, assuming authority on particular issues, as in the dotted-line relationship (see ORGANIZATION CHART). The benefits of matrix organization are said to be that it facilitates interdepartmental coordination during innovation, and, by weakening departmental boundaries, encourages greater flexibility and creativity. However, many organizations that have assumed this form have found that the absence of clarity in lines of authority and responsibility can lead to inertia and conflict. See FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE, PRODUCT-BASED STRUCTURE, CRITICAL FUNCTION STRUCTURE, CONCURRENT ENGINEERING.

References in periodicals archive ?
4: Visualization and quantification of cartilage matrix composition at day 1, day 14 and day 28 (A) Safranin-O staining showing GAGs in red/orange.
As the cartilage matrix degenerates, water content increases and raises the proton density of the tissue.
These enzymes, like the proteins in the cartilage matrix, are produced by the chondrocyte.
It is developing new treatments for sports injuries and other orthopedic conditions, where demand is growing for long-term alternatives to joint replacement, including lead candidates NeoCart([R]), an autologous bioengineered neocartilage grown outside the body using the patient's own cells for the regeneration of cartilage lesions, and VeriCart[TM], a three-dimensional cartilage matrix designed to stimulate cartilage repair in a simple, one-step procedure.
The sections were graded using the Mankin grading scheme: [sup][25] (1) Articular cartilage structure, (2) reduced articular cartilage matrix staining, (3) alignment of chondrocytes, and (4) the integrity of the tidal line.
MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS: Chondrocytes seen as clusters against the background of hyaline cartilage matrix and myxoid degeneration.
Chondrolysis is the disappearance of articular cartilage through dissolution of the cartilage matrix and cells.
Among its deleterious actions, NO increases MMP activity, inhibits cartilage matrix synthesis, and induces apoptosis in chondrocytes by reducing mitochondrial potential, ATP generation, and by increasing caspase activity.
It appears to stimulate the proliferation of immature chondrocytes or precursors, and indirectly regulates chondrocyte maturation and the expression of the cartilage matrix (Takahashi et al.
Six months post-injury, the effects on morphometric, histological and biochemical parameters of cartilage matrix were assessed.
In these tests, normal CILP slowed the activity of another protein, called TGF-[beta]1, that normally regenerates cartilage matrix tissue, the team reports.