What makes this data set unique is that it contains self-reported bribing in addition to perceptions of corruption, whereas existing corruption data sets offer information only on perceptions or willingness to bribe.
Our measures of corruption capture self-reported occurrences of students bribing (1) to enter their institutions, (2) on exams, (3) for credit, or (4) to pass a term paper.
MBP, a modified version of BP such that amnesty (and bribe restitution) is conditional on reporting, prevents corruption from increasing because of the moral and legal costs of bribing (when C is large).
Suppose this bribing competition takes the form of an English auction, and that law enforcers have some cost-of-lying denoted by [pi] (possibly because there is some small chance they will be indicted).
This especially true when it comes to corruption data, given the secrecy attached to bribing
of steering cases toward settlements favorable to the bribing
B] is very small relative to the initial level of legislative support for x, and A can win without bribing
The suspect is accused of bribing
the employee in exchange for opening a licence file for two of his friends who are employed in jobs which, according to UAE law, do not permit obtaining a driver's licence.
The Tokyo District Court on Tuesday sentenced a certified public tax accountant to four-and-a-half years in prison and fined him 70 million yen for bribing
a government tax inspector.
The Tokyo District Court on Thursday handed suspended sentences to two men for bribing
a former official of the state-run Japan Highway Public Corp.
A former consultant to the MTA pleaded guilty Monday to bribing
the agency's convicted former risk manager, Abdoul Sesay, and failing to report income she received from the agency.
Police also arrested the five men in question on suspicion of bribing
Mizukoshi in exchange for information on a corporation project to construct electric signboards along an expressway and for other preferential treatment.