Management

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Management

The people who administer a company, create policies, and provide the support necessary to implement the owners' business objectives.

Management

1. The persons or institutions that administer a company. That is, management has the responsibility to direct employees, set and enforce policies, and generally ensure that the company fulfills its goals (which management itself often sets). Management is responsible to the board of directors (of a publicly-traded company) and ultimately to the company's owners. In small companies, owners and managers are often the same people.

2. See: Asset management.

management

The process of organizing and directing human and physical resources within an ORGANIZATION so as to meet defined objectives. The key management roles are:
  1. planning how to carry out the various activities which are required to achieve the objective. This involves establishing an action programme (see BUSINESS PLAN) and an appropriate organization structure within which tasks can be subdivided (for example into production, personnel, marketing and finance); RESPONSIBILITY for them delegated; and PAY and reward systems instituted (see JOB DESIGN AND REDESIGN, WORK ORGANIZATION);
  2. CONTROL, by comparing current performance with that planned in order to monitor progress of the work. Such comparisons reveal where additional resources may be needed to achieve desired performance or when plans may need to be modified in the light of experience;
  3. COORDINATION of the tasks being undertaken, which involves synchronizing and balancing work loads and ensuring effective collaboration between the various DEPARTMENTS and GROUPS within the organization;
  4. MOTIVATION of the members of the organization, encouraging them to work effectively in performing their assigned task.

CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT THEORY portrayed management as a rational activity largely concerned with establishing routines and procedures for administering the work. More recently this emphasis has been questioned in a number of respects. Research has shown that much of the manager's working day is spent on tasks other than those suggested in this approach, for example attending retirement presentations, responding to telephone enquiries etc. Much of the manager's job involves ad hoc reactions to events. Other research has shown that managers ‘muddle through’, aiming at achieving satisfactory rather than optimum outcomes (see SATISFICING).

Recent writing on management has emphasized the LEADERSHIP aspect of the managerial function. The key issue here concerns the means by which managers can achieve effective performance from their subordinates. Two basic approaches are identified in the literature (on MANAGEMENT STYLE):

  1. task orientation, where managers' relationship with their subordinates is essentially directive, being primarily focused on getting the job done;
  2. people orientation, where managers show a greater concern for their subordinates' well-being, on the grounds that a contented workforce performs effectively.

Some believe that good leaders are born with certain personal qualities whilst others believe that these can be instilled through MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT. Whatever perspective is taken it should be remembered that leadership involves more than a leader: it also involves subordinates and a context. Good leadership is that which produces appropriate behaviour from others in particular situations. See ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS, BOARD OF DIRECTORS.

References in periodicals archive ?
Behavioral strategies include shifting weight frequently, optimizing seating and bladder and bowel management, and treating spasticity.
Significant positive correlations were evident for the two care items (BSL and bowel management) when outside pre-defined limits, according to the checklist.
Effectiveness of bran supplement on the bowel management of elderly rehabilitation patients.
For example, the chapter on the initial rehabilitation medicine consultation includes a statement of the purpose of the chapter, elements of a consultation, comorbid conditions, pressure ulcers, contractures, upper motor neuron syndrome and spasticity, DVT prophylaxis, pulmonary issues, neuroendocrine complications, pain, bowel management, autonomic dysfunction, nutrition, cognition, prognosis, disposition and discharge planning, long-term issues, and ends with a checklist of important report elements.
Summary: Looking at the current market trends as well as the promising demand status of the "Bowel Management Systems Market", it can be projected that the future years will bring out positive outcomes.
(2) I found out Cora hadn't moved her bowels for five days and got some PRN (pro re nata--as required) laxatives charted, ie an enema for bowel management. Secondly, I noticed she was in pain, that she looked sweaty and her temperature was a little above normal.
Anovestibular fistula can be repaired in one stage with meticulous pre- and postoperative bowel management. It is a good option in cases which are not able to afford prolonged hospitalization or are not willing for a colostomy.
Bowel management and pressure area risk assessment have also been identified as cares that require increased attention (8,9).
Retraining your bowel to empty at a planned, regularly scheduled time Avoiding any accidental, unplanned BM Avoiding leakage between each bowel program Maximizing stool removal during each bowel program Maintaining normal stool consistency Finishing each bowel program in a reasonable time (within 60 minutes) Feeling secure to fully participate in all desired activities of daily living Keeping your body's digestive system healthy As someone with SCI, you should know that your bowel program is only one element of bowel management. There are other essentials for success.
Patient A has some bowel and bladder sensation but must be catheterized every four hours and must use a bowel management program.
Learning bowel management programs can help develop more predictable schedules for bowel movements.
Increasing stool volumes with regular oral fibre supplementation, together with oral laxatives such as senna preparations given the night before combined with either manual removal, a mini-enema or in well-trained/ experienced patients a colonic lavage (such as Coloplast) are key ingredients of an effective flaccid bowel management programme.