In 1995, David Yarowsky published a seminal paper about bootstrapped
learning for word sense disambiguation.
The main purpose of utilizing the population and bootstrapped
sample is to avoid bias from a dual sampling frame, and if researchers can mitigate this bias by applying both weights, these results can be generalized to the U.S.
version of HQC performs consistently better than the other criteria: in fact it chooses the correct model in average 63.2% and 56.6% of the times for T = 100 and T = 200, respectively.
In the first step of the DEA double bootstrap technique, original DEA and bootstrapped
VRS efficiencies of 1995-96, 2000-01 and 2005-06 were estimated along with confidence intervals.
Therefore, the original small data set obtained from the experimental design (Table 1) was used to generate thirty bootstrapped
data sets for training feed-forward neural networks.
To determine the empirical size of the tests, 10,000 bootstrapped
data sets are generated for each combination of real output (GDP and each industrial series) and money using a structural vector auto-regression (SVAR) of money growth ([DELTA][m.sub.t]) and output growth ([DELTA][y.sub.t]).
In particular, the bootstrapped
MLE coefficients tend to be higher in absolute terms than those of the OLS by a margin of 0.1% to 0.2% for LMONCO and 0.4% to 0.9% for the relatively flat LPM10.
The standard error of [Mathematical Expression Omitted] is then estimated by calculating the standard deviation of the bootstrapped
estimates [Mathematical Expression Omitted], or alternatively, the confidence intervals can be calculated by using the percentiles of the distribution of [Mathematical Expression Omitted].
Because of the small number of taxa remaining after topiary pruning, it was feasible to carry out extensive bootstrapping of the data set and perform an extensive maximum parsimony search on each bootstrapped
set of data.
Examination of histograms from the bootstrapped
PCA demonstrated that no reflection occurred on the first axis, whereas most variables exhibited reflection on axes 2 and 3 [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 1 OMITTED].
Once appropriate point estimates of the required forecasts are obtained the model has been recursively bootstrapped
to obtain the probability distributions of the average demand, peak demand and of forecast errors conditional on current information.
She suggested first, however, that voice mail be bootstrapped
in her department.