After the researchers added a conceptual face shield in the third simulation, the models showed a significant reduction in the magnitude of stresses on the brain because the shield impeded direct transmission of blast waves
to the face.
These form as the blast waves
slow down after encountering clumps of cosmic material or debris surrounding the origin of the supernova.
Reflections, shadowing, or channelling phenomena can significantly alter the behaviour of a blast wave
. In such cases, the calculation of the blast wave
parameters with the empirical and semiempirical formulas proposed in  could result in significant errors.
The negative pressure phase of a blast wave
is usually much smaller and longer in duration than the positive phase; accordingly, it is generally ignored in blast resistant analysis.
These mechanisms include (1) direct interaction of the pressure wave with skull and subsequent transmission of energy through the brain, (2) transfer of kinetic energy from the blast wave
through either the vascular system or cerebrospinal fluid, and (3) some indirect mechanism(s) caused by systemic factors and damage to other organs and tissues .
After explosion, the blast wave
front reaches a target point in time [t.sub.A] and in no time reaches peak incident pressure [P.sub.so] which is the maximum positive pressure and then promptly decays to atmospheric pressure [P.sub.o].
Another BPT model was created by exposing the animal to a blast wave
directed at the thorax .
Apart from human loss and injuries, an IED explosion causes damage to vehicles and property primarily through the blast wave
, heat and fires.
A study of the blast wave
showed that the flying fragmentation shrapnel pierced the victims' car and damaged shops on the other side of the road.
MAKING A POINT Chart in Taiwan shows blast wave
caused by the bomb
These initial explosions are usually weak, but the blast wave
, travelling along technological equipment chambers and ductworks connecting them blows away dust from walls, the flame coming from behind ignites new aerosol masses and causes bigger explosions.