training

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training

the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and knowledge of people so as to improve JOB performance. A distinction can be made between vocational training, i.e. the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and pre-vocational training, i.e. the development of awareness of the world of work and employment. Education develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy which form the bedrock for more specialized occupational skills.

To determine what training is required in an organization or economy, it is beneficial to undertake a training needs analysis. As a first step the main goals or priorities have to be established; then it is necessary to consider what skills are necessary to achieve these objectives. These are compared with the existing stock of skills amongst workers. Any deficiency is referred to as a skills gap and represents the skills that should be provided by training. A comprehensive approach to training will involve a needs analysis, a programme to close this gap and a monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether it has been successful.

Although it is generally accepted that training improves job performance, UK employers are often reluctant to provide training. The UK in fact has a poor record compared with its main competitors such as Germany. Training in the UK is widely viewed as a cost rather than an investment, and one whose potential benefits are difficult to quantify on the balance sheet. Employers fear that employees, once trained, will leave or be poached for higher paid employment.

Traditionally, the training system in the UK was voluntarist (see VOLUNTARISM) in that the state had little role in directing the structures and content of training programmes and institutions. However, state intervention has grown in recent years. Currently, the system of vocational training is overseen by the recently-created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (see NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION). There is also an emphasis on skill development and training amongst the unemployed in the Welfare-to-Work programme. Participants in this programme receive training as part of work placements. See MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, ACCREDITATION OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, ACCREDITATION OF PRIOR LEARNING, APPRENTICESHIP, NEW DEAL.

training

the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and KNOW-HOW of people so as to improve the performance of the LABOUR FORCE and thus enhance PRODUCTIVITY. A broad distinction can be made between ‘vocational training’, that is, training concerned with the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and ‘general education’, which develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy that form the basis for the development of more specialized occupational skills.

Vocational training is provided by firms through apprenticeships (‘on-the-job’ training), in-company short courses, management development programmes, etc. Governments also sponsor and finance vocational training initiatives as well as undertaking responsibilities for the provision of general education. Currently the system of government vocational training is overseen by the recently created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS, and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications - NVQs) to encourage training in transferable skills.

Under the NEW DEAL (1998), unemployed youths (in the age group 18–24) and the older long-term unemployed (aged 25 or over), receiving the JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, can be placed on a one-year full-time training course. See INVESTORS IN PEOPLE, DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

References in periodicals archive ?
Participants in the intervention group received additional intense educational bladder training via verbal instructions on content within five education handouts--three on Kegel exercises, and one each on bladder irritants and dietary suggestions for improving bowel habits and avoiding bladder irritants.
A reassessment of bladder training in detrusor dysfunction in the female.
Timed voiding and bladder training also can help you control your bladder.
Follow your doctor's advice regarding conservative treatment such as medication, exercises, bladder training, and fluid intake.
Bladder training Requires the patient Generally used in to void at regular UUI, but has been and progressively applied in older longer intervals of women with SUI.
Drug therapy is often coupled with behavioral technique and bladder training, which help individuals gain even greater bladder control.
Much of the focus of the nursing care in this book, however, will likely not be useful to pediatric nephrology nurses as the emphasis is on daily living skills such as feeding, ambulation, and bowel and bladder training, which most children with ESRD master aided only by their parents.
Treatments include waiting, dietary modification, moisture alarms, medications, and bladder training.
The type of difficulty your child has with toilet training (bowel training, bladder training, or both) and the potential to achieve control depends on your child's special need and whether it is a physical or cognitive difficulty and the degree to which your child is affected.
Successful results have been reported with both bladder training and night lifting programs (National Enuresis Society, 1995).
Timed voiding (urinating) and bladder training are techniques that use biofeedback.
Using these approaches, bladder training should be accomplished relatively quickly for Josh.