'Low birth weight
has multiple causes and reducing it requires strategies to improve maternal nutritional status; guarantee adequate maternal services and care before, during and after birth; and strengthen social support,' the report stated.
The researchers concluded that the direct effects of a baby's genes made a substantial contribution to birth weight
. However, around one-quarter of the genetic effects identified were from the mother's genes that were not passed on to the child.
The average least square means for birth weight
and weaning weight of Charolais and Hereford sired crossbred calves were higher than current study (Dadi et al.
and length data of 116 German newborns (48 boys, 68 girls) with classical CAH who were born during the period from 1990 to 2017 were analyzed.
The parameters, namely birth weight
, crown-to-heel length, head circumference, and chest circumference, were measured immediately after delivery.
Table 2: Frequency of estimated foetal weight to actual birth weight
Keywords: Incidence, Low birth weight
, Maternal risk factors, Pakistan.
The study did find a link between traffic noise and birth weight
. For each interquartile increase in air pollution exposure however there was a 2-6% increase in the odds of a LBW delivery.
The study showed that children born with only a little too low birth weight
have more cognitive difficulties, such as lower verbal IQ and poorer attention and coordination abilities in comparison to children born with normal birth weight
was taken using baby weight scales after checking the scale with known weight control.
 Low birth weight
is one of the most serious challenges in maternal and child health in developing countries.
The research variables were maternal BMI, newborn birth weight
, maternal height and fetal crown heel length.