This phenomenon is widely used for analyzing birefringent
samples in mineralogy.
It is seen that for all principal directions the medium is birefringent
with linearly polarised eigenwaves.
Foreign body granulomas containing large numbers of birefringent
crystalline particles have been described, but rarely sarcoid-like granulomas (Gibbs et al.
In a study of the clay mineralogy of the Pilliga Sandstone, Arditto (1983) demonstrated an abundance of low birefringent
clay material filling detrital grain fractures and pore spaces.
Following the translucent zone the dark or positively birefringent
zone appears [Silverstone, 1967].
Reflection measurements with polarization modulation: A method to investigate bandgaps in birefringent
materials like I-III-VI2 chalcopyrite compounds", Solid State Communications 13 (1973) 599-602.
Since these structures have birefringent
property, under polarized light they appear bright against dark background.
As well as fungal hyphae a few rosettes of needle shaped birefringent
(polarizable) crystals were noted.
There existed a birefringent
area, which theoretically consisted only of double stranded DNA.
Due to this effect, mechanical stress applied on amorphous transparent materials like glass or plastics makes them birefringent
similar to crystals.
They open with explanation of the theoretical foundations of waveguiding technologies, contained in chapters on propagation characteristics of planar optical waveguides, birefringent
optical waveguides, and optically induced nonlinear waveguides.
visualization of the micellar fluid layer around a diagonally oriented square "cutting tool.