Therefore, the positive double immunostaining of PKC[alpha]/Bassoon complex in the extending dendrites in the ONL layer of the experimental retina indicates newly formed connections between the photoreceptors and the bipolar cells
. These synapse formation may point toward an increase in the signaling in the outer retina between the photoreceptors and bipolar cell
dendrites (Figure 8) .
Abbreviations: AC: amacrine cell; BC: bipolar cell
; CI: the correlation index; Fs GC: Fast-sustained GC; Ft GC: Fast-transient GC; GABA: [gamma]-amino butyric acid; GC: ganglion cell; MFQ: mefloquine; Ms: Medium-sustained GC; Mt GC: Medium-transient GC; PCA: the principal component analysis; PSTH: the peri-stimulus time histogram; PTX: picrotoxin; RCC: the raw cross-correlogram; RF: the receptive field; SC: the shift predictor correlogram; Ss GC: Slow-sustained GC; STA: the spike-triggered average; St GC: Slow-transient GC; V1: primary visual cortex.
In our previous work , we described three different scenarios for retinal prosthesis: stimulating the reinnervated cone cells in the macula, stimulating bipolar cells
, or stimulating retinal ganglion cells.
In particular, Isl1 controls the differentiation of cholinergic amacrine cells and also may function in the specification of bipolar cell
subtype or the differentiation of previously specified bipolar subtypes in the murine retina [22, 23].
take input from the photoreceptors at the back of the eye and hand it off to the ganglion cells that form the optic nerve," Greenlee explains.
Once the photoreceptors receive the information from the light source, they produce a signal which communicates to the next level of bipolar cells
. These cells pass on the signal to the retinal ganglion cells, but they also encode information determining whether visual information falls into a certain receptive field.
"The rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells
in this pathway are responsible for contrast and light/dark detection.
Functional architecture of synapses in the inner retina: segregation of visual signals by stratification of bipolar cell
In contrast the bipolar cell
P2 recovered faster when the insult was divided into multiple short-duration episodes.
Unlike other vertebrate species, it contains only one class of photoreceptor, namely rods; and, thus far, only two morphologically and pharmacologically distinct subtypes of bipolar cell
have been identified.
Potential contributors to the PII include rod and cone bipolar cell
responses, with the later showing faster rise and decay kinetics .