The negative

binomial distribution, characterized by the variance being greater than the mean, represents an aggregated or contagious distribution of insects.

The values of [[??].sup.L.sub.t] and [[??].sup.U.sub.t] can then actually be obtained by using the relationship between the cumulative beta distribution and the cumulative

binomial distribution function as follows (Daly [13] and Johnson et al.

A recent study (31) produced a similar estimate (k = 0.18; 95% CI 0.10-0.26) when the negative

binomial distribution was fitted to data from large Ebola transmission chains in Guinea (32); this result suggests that the high variability assumption may be appropriate, but whether or not the assumption of high variability is an appropriate characterization for potential Ebola outbreaks in new countries is unclear.

This finding was analogous to the work of Pollard et al (1977) when fitting the negative

binomial distribution to groups of players.

Over an infinite number of such trials, each combination is expected to be equally frequent (1/4 each); equivalently, the number of boys (or girls) follows a

binomial distribution with n = 2 and p = 0.5.

This joint distribution can be called zero-inflated multivariate negative binomial (ZI-MVNB) because it has the form of a multivariate negative

binomial distribution with a zero-inflated term equal to [[phi].sub.i].

Recreational fishery catch distributions sampled by the MRFSS are highly contagious and overdispersed in relation to the normal distribution and are generally best characterized by the Poisson or negative

binomial distributions. The modeling of both the simulated and empirical MRFSS catch rates indicates that one may draw erroneous conclusions about stock trends by assuming the wrong error distribution in procedures used to developed standardized indices of stock abundance.

Then, he incorporates a host of probability principles, including random walk and

binomial distributions, into entertaining discussions of how to approach an answer.

Limitations of traditional Poisson models have been reviewed to highlight the need to introduce new models using well established geometric and negative

binomial distributions. Equations are developed for the use of geometric and negative

binomial distributions in the study of test misgrading.

In summary, partly due to differences in the notation choice, the well-established geometric and negative

binomial distributions have yet to be used in models of test misgrading.

1): the number of survivors in each age-class, the number of breeders in each female age-class, and the number of female pups in the litters were all modeled with

binomial distributions. Based on the a nalyses of Sherman and Runge, we included environmental stochasticity in two processes, annual survival and mean litter size, both modeled with additive year effects (Fig.

Binomial distributions like (1) are common in biology, but simple hypergeometrics like (2) are rare.