This study developed and characterized a FORS for the remote and real-time measurements of beta radiation
. The FORS consisted of the sensing probe with an aluminium foil reflector, transmitting plastic optical fiber, and light-measuring system that comprised a photomultiplier tube, preamplifier, multichannel analyzer, and laptop computer.
Whether adjunctive beta radiation
is an effective alternative is unclear from this dataset, but the results suggest that further investigation is needed.
High doses of external gamma radiation can damage thyroid gland tissue and lead to hypothyroidism as well as benign or malignant nodules, but the effects of low doses, especially of beta radiation
such as [sup.131]I, are less certain.
It occurred by 8 months in 27% of patients randomized to placebo and 17% who received beta radiation
. At 2 years the rate of target vessel revascularization remained significantly lower in the active treatment arm: 28%, compared with 37% with placebo.
When the nuclei of the atoms making up a lump of radioactive material decay, they may produce not only alpha and beta radiation
but the very high energy, and hence ionizing, gamma radiation.
The particulate sample provides readings of overall alpha and beta radiation
and also is used to determine the radiochemistry of the particulates.
Some examples of these are: the discovery of the radioactivity of thorium, and the new elements polonium and radium (1898); the identification of alpha and beta radiation
(1899); the Rutherford/Soddy disintegration theory (1902); the discovery of isotopes (1909); the Rutherford nuclear theory of the atom (1911); the Bohr theory of the atom (1913); the disintegration of nitrogen atoms (1919); the discovery of artificial radioactivity (1933); and the discovery of nuclear fission (1938).
They emit penetrating gamma radiation that is much more of a hazard than the alpha or beta radiation
from cesium, cobalt, strontium or polonium,' LaMastra said.
"Unlike other detectors, this spectrometer is more efficient, and able to measure and quantify both gamma and beta radiation
at the same time," said David Hamby, an OSU professor of health physics.
The measuring principle of thickness gauge is based on the attenuation of Beta radiation
emitted by a nuclear source as it passes through a material.