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The people who administer a company, create policies, and provide the support necessary to implement the owners' business objectives.


1. The persons or institutions that administer a company. That is, management has the responsibility to direct employees, set and enforce policies, and generally ensure that the company fulfills its goals (which management itself often sets). Management is responsible to the board of directors (of a publicly-traded company) and ultimately to the company's owners. In small companies, owners and managers are often the same people.

2. See: Asset management.


The process of organizing and directing human and physical resources within an ORGANIZATION so as to meet defined objectives. The key management roles are:
  1. planning how to carry out the various activities which are required to achieve the objective. This involves establishing an action programme (see BUSINESS PLAN) and an appropriate organization structure within which tasks can be subdivided (for example into production, personnel, marketing and finance); RESPONSIBILITY for them delegated; and PAY and reward systems instituted (see JOB DESIGN AND REDESIGN, WORK ORGANIZATION);
  2. CONTROL, by comparing current performance with that planned in order to monitor progress of the work. Such comparisons reveal where additional resources may be needed to achieve desired performance or when plans may need to be modified in the light of experience;
  3. COORDINATION of the tasks being undertaken, which involves synchronizing and balancing work loads and ensuring effective collaboration between the various DEPARTMENTS and GROUPS within the organization;
  4. MOTIVATION of the members of the organization, encouraging them to work effectively in performing their assigned task.

CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT THEORY portrayed management as a rational activity largely concerned with establishing routines and procedures for administering the work. More recently this emphasis has been questioned in a number of respects. Research has shown that much of the manager's working day is spent on tasks other than those suggested in this approach, for example attending retirement presentations, responding to telephone enquiries etc. Much of the manager's job involves ad hoc reactions to events. Other research has shown that managers ‘muddle through’, aiming at achieving satisfactory rather than optimum outcomes (see SATISFICING).

Recent writing on management has emphasized the LEADERSHIP aspect of the managerial function. The key issue here concerns the means by which managers can achieve effective performance from their subordinates. Two basic approaches are identified in the literature (on MANAGEMENT STYLE):

  1. task orientation, where managers' relationship with their subordinates is essentially directive, being primarily focused on getting the job done;
  2. people orientation, where managers show a greater concern for their subordinates' well-being, on the grounds that a contented workforce performs effectively.

Some believe that good leaders are born with certain personal qualities whilst others believe that these can be instilled through MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT. Whatever perspective is taken it should be remembered that leadership involves more than a leader: it also involves subordinates and a context. Good leadership is that which produces appropriate behaviour from others in particular situations. See ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS, BOARD OF DIRECTORS.

References in periodicals archive ?
Relationship Between Behavior Management and Early Literacy Skills
Behavior management interventions can be applied either with individual inmates or with a group of inmates on a specialized mental health unit that is designated exclusively for that purpose.
There are many ways to explore the influence of the school leadership on student behavior management in the form of direct observation of the school leadership's practices and interviewing the school leaderships and the parents of the students.
By no means do I want to convey the idea that behavior management or issues related to student discipline are concepts and practices that are easy and uncomplicated; in fact, they represent some of the greatest challenges a teacher faces daily.
Mac starts with the basics of behavior management, and then offers tips for becoming an effective behavior manager as well as strategies for dealing with common behaviors and conditions.
Skills such as effective classroom and behavior management are central to teaching and require "common sense," consistency, a sense of fairness, and courage.
This is where application behavior management conies in, providing that information access.
Various approaches to behavior management have been utilized in the long term care industry.
This article explores strategies for implementing clinical practice guidelines based on the various factors that influence physician behavior and recommends a direct behavior management strategy based on financial contingencies.
Included in this edition are new chapters on substance abuse, AIDS, Down's syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, behavior management, transitions to adulthood, and medical care in the 21st century, as well as current information on the causes of many conditions that can lead to developmental disabilities.
Effective behavior management programs include a careful individual assessment and analysis of the function of the behavior (Gardner, 1988), utilizing a multi-modal behavioral treatment model (Gardner & Graeber, 1993).

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