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the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and knowledge of people so as to improve JOB performance. A distinction can be made between vocational training, i.e. the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and pre-vocational training, i.e. the development of awareness of the world of work and employment. Education develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy which form the bedrock for more specialized occupational skills.

To determine what training is required in an organization or economy, it is beneficial to undertake a training needs analysis. As a first step the main goals or priorities have to be established; then it is necessary to consider what skills are necessary to achieve these objectives. These are compared with the existing stock of skills amongst workers. Any deficiency is referred to as a skills gap and represents the skills that should be provided by training. A comprehensive approach to training will involve a needs analysis, a programme to close this gap and a monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether it has been successful.

Although it is generally accepted that training improves job performance, UK employers are often reluctant to provide training. The UK in fact has a poor record compared with its main competitors such as Germany. Training in the UK is widely viewed as a cost rather than an investment, and one whose potential benefits are difficult to quantify on the balance sheet. Employers fear that employees, once trained, will leave or be poached for higher paid employment.

Traditionally, the training system in the UK was voluntarist (see VOLUNTARISM) in that the state had little role in directing the structures and content of training programmes and institutions. However, state intervention has grown in recent years. Currently, the system of vocational training is overseen by the recently-created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (see NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION). There is also an emphasis on skill development and training amongst the unemployed in the Welfare-to-Work programme. Participants in this programme receive training as part of work placements. See MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, ACCREDITATION OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, ACCREDITATION OF PRIOR LEARNING, APPRENTICESHIP, NEW DEAL.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson


the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and KNOW-HOW of people so as to improve the performance of the LABOUR FORCE and thus enhance PRODUCTIVITY. A broad distinction can be made between ‘vocational training’, that is, training concerned with the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and ‘general education’, which develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy that form the basis for the development of more specialized occupational skills.

Vocational training is provided by firms through apprenticeships (‘on-the-job’ training), in-company short courses, management development programmes, etc. Governments also sponsor and finance vocational training initiatives as well as undertaking responsibilities for the provision of general education. Currently the system of government vocational training is overseen by the recently created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS, and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications - NVQs) to encourage training in transferable skills.

Under the NEW DEAL (1998), unemployed youths (in the age group 18–24) and the older long-term unemployed (aged 25 or over), receiving the JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, can be placed on a one-year full-time training course. See INVESTORS IN PEOPLE, DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

Collins Dictionary of Economics, 4th ed. © C. Pass, B. Lowes, L. Davies 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Mintz, "Balance deficit enhances anxiety and balance training decreases anxiety in vestibular mutant mice," Behavioural Brain Research, vol.
Null Hypothesis: It may be seen that conventional prosthesis and ultra-modern prosthesis along with balance training may not be effective in the treatment of unilateral transtibial amputee.
Another important factor of balance training in older individuals is fear of falling.
(4) and the present study should be recognized, balance training effects were still maintained after the prolonged detraining of 21 wks while the 24-wk detraining period resulted in a significant decrease in muscle strength.
In addition, to investigate the effects of balance training on the dynamic balance of children with visual impairments, we compared the mean task score of the two groups in the posttest.
In comparison, lateral movements are important in balance training, as they encourage better balance, flexibility, steadiness of the movements, and respond to the toes and the feet.
Therefore, in order to evidence the trainability of the proprioception, we need to prove that balance training can enhance either the sensitivity of the proprioceptors responding to mechanical stimulus or the neurophysiological efficiency of signal conversion and transmission.
This leads on to the selection of appropriate measures to detect meaningful change in this domain, and also the composition of the balance training program.
Through balance training, your body is better able to make adjustments to imposed multiplanar demands.
Since we had such success working with apparently healthy older individuals, we wanted to spread the good news and offered classes, seminars and articles to the public not only on the benefits of balance training, but the rewards of exercise.
Include balance training in your fitness plan along with the training of the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and respiratory systems you get from running.
Gait and balance training is yet another area where the treadmill can be beneficial as long as the individual "learns to let go." In a study of the effects of resistance, balance and gait training on the reduction of risk factors leading to falls in the elderly, Verfaillie et al.