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the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and knowledge of people so as to improve JOB performance. A distinction can be made between vocational training, i.e. the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and pre-vocational training, i.e. the development of awareness of the world of work and employment. Education develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy which form the bedrock for more specialized occupational skills.

To determine what training is required in an organization or economy, it is beneficial to undertake a training needs analysis. As a first step the main goals or priorities have to be established; then it is necessary to consider what skills are necessary to achieve these objectives. These are compared with the existing stock of skills amongst workers. Any deficiency is referred to as a skills gap and represents the skills that should be provided by training. A comprehensive approach to training will involve a needs analysis, a programme to close this gap and a monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether it has been successful.

Although it is generally accepted that training improves job performance, UK employers are often reluctant to provide training. The UK in fact has a poor record compared with its main competitors such as Germany. Training in the UK is widely viewed as a cost rather than an investment, and one whose potential benefits are difficult to quantify on the balance sheet. Employers fear that employees, once trained, will leave or be poached for higher paid employment.

Traditionally, the training system in the UK was voluntarist (see VOLUNTARISM) in that the state had little role in directing the structures and content of training programmes and institutions. However, state intervention has grown in recent years. Currently, the system of vocational training is overseen by the recently-created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (see NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION). There is also an emphasis on skill development and training amongst the unemployed in the Welfare-to-Work programme. Participants in this programme receive training as part of work placements. See MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, ACCREDITATION OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, ACCREDITATION OF PRIOR LEARNING, APPRENTICESHIP, NEW DEAL.


the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and KNOW-HOW of people so as to improve the performance of the LABOUR FORCE and thus enhance PRODUCTIVITY. A broad distinction can be made between ‘vocational training’, that is, training concerned with the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and ‘general education’, which develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy that form the basis for the development of more specialized occupational skills.

Vocational training is provided by firms through apprenticeships (‘on-the-job’ training), in-company short courses, management development programmes, etc. Governments also sponsor and finance vocational training initiatives as well as undertaking responsibilities for the provision of general education. Currently the system of government vocational training is overseen by the recently created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS, and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications - NVQs) to encourage training in transferable skills.

Under the NEW DEAL (1998), unemployed youths (in the age group 18–24) and the older long-term unemployed (aged 25 or over), receiving the JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, can be placed on a one-year full-time training course. See INVESTORS IN PEOPLE, DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

References in periodicals archive ?
So now you might be wondering how you do balance training exercises.
The two weekly training sessions proposed to the EG were differentially structured (see Tables 1 and 2 for details); balance training was performed after a 15 minute warm-up consisting of slow running, stretching and speed exercises and preceded the execution of sport-specific exercises.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different frequencies of balance training on the balance ability expressed as performance while recording the changes in the seesaw-like platform movements and head acceleration in the control of postural stability.
Subjects performed balance training exercises on rocker and wobble boards with open and closed eyes.
Participants were randomly allocated to a perturbation based balance training group using a motion platform or a control group undergoing flexibility and relaxation training.
Finally, we agree with Hill and Williams that further well designed randomised trials regarding the effects of balance training in people with knee OA are required to explore the potential benefits of this approach not only on standing balance but also on pain and functional mobility.
Previous balance research has validated the efficacy of various balance training programs on the prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and reduction of re-injury rates of lower extremity injuries at and around the ankle (1, 2, 5-10).
This week Will is trying to balance training with his love for parmos.
People love the balance training because their improved balance and coordination make them less afraid of falling.
One of their reports, "Reducing Frailty and Falls in Older Persons: An Investigation of Tai Chi and Computerized Balance Training," was selected as the best paper in the 1990s by the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (51[12]:1794-1803, 2003).