Unfortunately, it is predicted that none of the cranioplasty materials are as capable as autologous grafts. Various studies showed that these materials may result in graft rejection, parenchymal defects, and infection in the early or late period (8-12).
Some cancers may reside in an autologous graft. Therefore, transplants using autologous material from bone marrow, mobilized stem cells from peripheral blood, or UCB are less likely to be indicated for hematologic malignancies.
"The regenerative mechanisms of the body are extremely complex, "Pavesio said." To date, the standard of care in just about any [orthopedic] surgery remains an autologous graft because it is very, very hard to synthetically reproduce a tissue, considering all the complexity that goes into it.