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the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and knowledge of people so as to improve JOB performance. A distinction can be made between vocational training, i.e. the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and pre-vocational training, i.e. the development of awareness of the world of work and employment. Education develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy which form the bedrock for more specialized occupational skills.

To determine what training is required in an organization or economy, it is beneficial to undertake a training needs analysis. As a first step the main goals or priorities have to be established; then it is necessary to consider what skills are necessary to achieve these objectives. These are compared with the existing stock of skills amongst workers. Any deficiency is referred to as a skills gap and represents the skills that should be provided by training. A comprehensive approach to training will involve a needs analysis, a programme to close this gap and a monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether it has been successful.

Although it is generally accepted that training improves job performance, UK employers are often reluctant to provide training. The UK in fact has a poor record compared with its main competitors such as Germany. Training in the UK is widely viewed as a cost rather than an investment, and one whose potential benefits are difficult to quantify on the balance sheet. Employers fear that employees, once trained, will leave or be poached for higher paid employment.

Traditionally, the training system in the UK was voluntarist (see VOLUNTARISM) in that the state had little role in directing the structures and content of training programmes and institutions. However, state intervention has grown in recent years. Currently, the system of vocational training is overseen by the recently-created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (see NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION). There is also an emphasis on skill development and training amongst the unemployed in the Welfare-to-Work programme. Participants in this programme receive training as part of work placements. See MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, ACCREDITATION OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, ACCREDITATION OF PRIOR LEARNING, APPRENTICESHIP, NEW DEAL.


the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and KNOW-HOW of people so as to improve the performance of the LABOUR FORCE and thus enhance PRODUCTIVITY. A broad distinction can be made between ‘vocational training’, that is, training concerned with the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and ‘general education’, which develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy that form the basis for the development of more specialized occupational skills.

Vocational training is provided by firms through apprenticeships (‘on-the-job’ training), in-company short courses, management development programmes, etc. Governments also sponsor and finance vocational training initiatives as well as undertaking responsibilities for the provision of general education. Currently the system of government vocational training is overseen by the recently created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS, and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications - NVQs) to encourage training in transferable skills.

Under the NEW DEAL (1998), unemployed youths (in the age group 18–24) and the older long-term unemployed (aged 25 or over), receiving the JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, can be placed on a one-year full-time training course. See INVESTORS IN PEOPLE, DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

References in periodicals archive ?
RELAXATION INTERVENTION BART involved a series of relaxation training sessions where the students learned diaphragmatic breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and autogenic training.
In my yoga and relaxation classes I teach a combination of autogenic training and yoga nidra, combining the wisdom of traditional practices and emphasis on awareness with the modern scientific and medical findings on the profound effects of the hypnotic trance states being currently taught with neurolinquistic programming.
Present conditions and problems of applying autogenic training to promote mental health in the workplace.
His work provided the inspiration for Johannes Schultz, a Berlin psychiatrist and neurologist to investigate the therapeutic potential of auto-hypnosis exercises from which autogenic training emerged.
90) Furthermore, analysis revealed that the majority of subjects reported "never" using autohypnosis, autogenic training, blank meditation, bracing, color, cue words, mantra meditation, and Transcendental Meditation(C) for performance enhancement.
Autogenic training, some 100 years old, is a system of self-control, centered on the creation of sensations of heaviness and bodily warmth.
The investigators found that a broad-based coping skills intervention enhanced those skills more than the autogenic training intervention of controls and reduced injury frequency and duration.
Suggest that the client close his/her eyes and begin with 5-10 minutes of deep abdominal breathing, autogenic training or body scan to induce a further relaxed state.
Cognitive approaches are self-awareness, imagery, goal-directed visualisation, autogenic training, meditation, Benson's method and cognitive behavioural methods.
There is a very wide range of complementary treatments based on Eastern philosophy, such as acupressure, acupuncture, aromatherapy, autogenic training, biorhythms, massage, meditation, neuro-linguistic programming, reflexology, reiki healing, shiatsu, yoga (Chris-UK, 2005).
In BFRT, biofeedback is usually augmented with relaxation techniques such as diaphragmatic breathing, progressive muscle relaxation training, autogenic training, guided imagery, and meditation.