Having set the stage with changes in total consumption for all countries, we now divide countries according to the categories used in B&K: autocracies
, hybrid regimes, and democracies.
(2003) suggests that corruption split into two dimensions: pervasiveness (number and frequency of transactions and people) and arbitrariness government agents act independently and capriciously).In anocracies, corruption is most damaging because these societies are high in both pervasiveness and arbitrariness (such as in Russia), while in autocracies
, while corruption may be pervasive, it is less arbitrary and therefore more efficient (such as in China).
From his point of view, backing autocracies
in the Middle East simply delays the near-certain progression from disillusionment with Islamic fundamentalism to democratic enlightenment.
If the spread of democracy is unlikely to cast autocracies
into the dustbin of history along with slavery and imperialism, as McFaul hopes, assisting gradual political liberalization abroad could ameliorate the lot of peoples in developing countries.
Indeed, one of the purposes of the concert is to give autocracies
incentives to embrace democratic practices.
So while in the West, leaders worry that the global economy faces a second Great Depression, such an economic crisis poses a major threat to some of the world's most resilient autocracies
. A strong economy was their only backstop.
The Chinese and Russians and the leaders of other autocracies
cannot welcome this kind of progress.
strategic ends through partnerships with Arab autocracies
yields mixed results, at best, in the short term and is cancerous in the longer run.
(1) In autocracies
, officials generally have significant control over economic activity and are unconstrained by democratic institutions, such as political competition (elections), the rule of law, an independent judiciary, and a free press.
In a speech to a conference in London on Militant Islam, he said repressive regimes were the "greenhouse of extremism", adding: "There is plenty of evidence that militancy, Islamic or otherwise, grows more vigorously in autocracies
." At the same time, Mr O'Brien stressed the need for a resumption of Middle East peace talks.
As at the end of the 20th century only four (Lithuania, Moldova, Russia and the Ukraine) are categorised by Roeder as democracies; six (Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) are categorised as autocracies
, which are governed exclusively by a small group; three (Armenia, Georgia and Kyrgyzstan) are categorised as oligarchies, where the selectorate is a broader group of bureaucrats; and two (Estonia and Latvia) are categorised as exclusive republics, where the selectorate comprises a wide section of society, but not all persons of voting age.
Communal groups in liberalizing autocracies
have substantial opportunities for mobilization, but such states usually lack the institutional resources to reach the kinds of accommodation typical of established democracy (Gurr 1993, 165).