Therefore, [IL-17A.sup.-][IL-17F.sup.+] Th17 cells may also play important role in periodontal disease like [IL-17A.sup.+][IL-17F.sup.-] Th17 cell as both Th17 cells were correlated with the attachment loss
Reduction in pocket depth and clinical attachment loss
was also achieved however, no statistically significant differences in pocket depth reductions or clinical attachment levels were found between scaling and root planing and scaling and root planing with the adjunctive use of Perioscopy[TM].
The sample consisted of subjects with a mean attachment loss
of 2.26 [+ or -] 1.71 which, according to the American Academy of Periodontology classification, (26) would be characterized as moderate attachment loss
51.1-87) average bleeding on probing score of 66.3% (95% C.I= 60.4-72.2) and average clinical attachment loss
of 2.5 mm (95% C.I= 2.35-2.6).
While the pathogens mentioned above are a very current list, much of the research has revolved around the progression or succession of species from less to more pathogenic as attachment loss
increases, and how these changes are associated with, or predictive of, disease activity.
A number of studies reported rapid progression and higher severity of existing chronic periodontitis in HIV-seropositive patients with severe attachment loss
. It has been suggested that the preexisting periodontitis may be exacerbated in HIV-infected patients due to the severe immunosuppression and also HIV-infection is being considered as modifier of periodontal disease.
A population study (16) that used a self-reported questionnaire regarding alcohol consumption observed a significant relationship between alcohol, gingival inflammation and clinical attachment loss
, after controlling for major confounding variables.
While many researchers have attempted to identify risk factors that influence that natural history of progressive periodontal attachment loss
and tooth loss, few studies have examined the impact of residual pockets following active treatment on meaningful outcomes.
Risk indicators for attachment loss
. J Periodontol 1994; 65(3):260-67.
The peri- odontal examination included assessment of gingival index (GI) bleeding on probing (BoP) probing depths (PD) and clinical attachment loss
The attachment loss
, tooth loss and infection can be a threat to their oral health along with the problems of diminished confidence, quality of life and self-image.
(1) Despite this, most dental professionals still use diagnostic tests developed in the early 1900's such as Disclosing Solutions, Bleeding on Probing, Pocket Depths and Radiographs, all of which are fraught with problems and none of which are predictive of future attachment loss
. Questions which come to our mind are; can traditional tests detect pathogenic biofilms?