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the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and knowledge of people so as to improve JOB performance. A distinction can be made between vocational training, i.e. the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and pre-vocational training, i.e. the development of awareness of the world of work and employment. Education develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy which form the bedrock for more specialized occupational skills.

To determine what training is required in an organization or economy, it is beneficial to undertake a training needs analysis. As a first step the main goals or priorities have to be established; then it is necessary to consider what skills are necessary to achieve these objectives. These are compared with the existing stock of skills amongst workers. Any deficiency is referred to as a skills gap and represents the skills that should be provided by training. A comprehensive approach to training will involve a needs analysis, a programme to close this gap and a monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether it has been successful.

Although it is generally accepted that training improves job performance, UK employers are often reluctant to provide training. The UK in fact has a poor record compared with its main competitors such as Germany. Training in the UK is widely viewed as a cost rather than an investment, and one whose potential benefits are difficult to quantify on the balance sheet. Employers fear that employees, once trained, will leave or be poached for higher paid employment.

Traditionally, the training system in the UK was voluntarist (see VOLUNTARISM) in that the state had little role in directing the structures and content of training programmes and institutions. However, state intervention has grown in recent years. Currently, the system of vocational training is overseen by the recently-created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (see NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION). There is also an emphasis on skill development and training amongst the unemployed in the Welfare-to-Work programme. Participants in this programme receive training as part of work placements. See MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, ACCREDITATION OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, ACCREDITATION OF PRIOR LEARNING, APPRENTICESHIP, NEW DEAL.


the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and KNOW-HOW of people so as to improve the performance of the LABOUR FORCE and thus enhance PRODUCTIVITY. A broad distinction can be made between ‘vocational training’, that is, training concerned with the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and ‘general education’, which develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy that form the basis for the development of more specialized occupational skills.

Vocational training is provided by firms through apprenticeships (‘on-the-job’ training), in-company short courses, management development programmes, etc. Governments also sponsor and finance vocational training initiatives as well as undertaking responsibilities for the provision of general education. Currently the system of government vocational training is overseen by the recently created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS, and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications - NVQs) to encourage training in transferable skills.

Under the NEW DEAL (1998), unemployed youths (in the age group 18–24) and the older long-term unemployed (aged 25 or over), receiving the JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, can be placed on a one-year full-time training course. See INVESTORS IN PEOPLE, DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

References in periodicals archive ?
Audience: The book will assist clinicians and students in applying current concepts applicable to athletic training while in the classroom, clinic, or on the field.
Aman will lead an integrated consumer-oriented focus across footwear, apparel and equipment for Men's Athletic Training as part of Nike's category brand management strategy for core business segments.
The purpose of this Request for Proposal (RFP) is to solicit sealed proposals to establish a contract through competitive negotiations for an Athletic Training Facility Audio/Visual Installation by Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
Schools with budget constrictions can still guard their athletes safety by opting for a teacher/ATC arrangement where the ATC teaches a reduced class schedule and provides athletic training services for the sports program.
Governor Schwarzenegger recently vetoed SB 1397, watchdog legislation calling for statewide regulation of athletic training, leaving athletes and consumers at risk for injury or disability.
Every man and woman who serves our country wears a shoe with a Vibram sole and now we can finally extend this to their athletic training footwear.
of Wisconsin-Madison) have designed this textbook for fellow ATCs on the concepts, strategies and techniques used in modern athletic training health care delivery systems.
Kverka had began athletic training at 12, and at 14 she was ready for the canceled 1940 Games even though she was too young.
National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Fluid Replacement for Athletes Journal of Athletic Training 2000; 35(2): 212-224)
The project also features a 20,000-square-foot, state-of-the-art training center for the Capitals with a large weight and fitness room, extensive athletic training and medical facilities, spacious locker-room and lounge areas, a theater-style classroom and a high-tech video room.
Athletic training student primer; a foundation for success, 2d ed.