This theory recognized the corporation as merely a "collection, or aggregate, of individuals" rather than a separate entity as under the artificial person
In the cases of amparo actions against artificial persons
of public or private law, the complaint, on the one hand, must identify both the artificial person
and its representatives, and, on the other hand, can be filled directly against the natural person that represents the artificial person
or against the artificial entity in itself (Brewer-Carias, 2009: 293).
It is worth noting that even in an Artificial Person
, the intermediate level between micro and macro levels allows for the existence of sub-artificial person recursion within a single artificial person
To give an everyday example, when I order a computer from a large retailer such as Tesco, I neither know nor have any interest in who its shareholders might be; I buy solely on the reputation of the company as an artificial person
In his article "Citizens United and the Battle for Free Speech in America" [TOS, Spring 2010], Steve Simpson mentions in passing that corporations "are artificial persons
" and then proceeds to dismiss the factual nature of corporations.
Though Pateman believes that, for Hobbes, "all women are also excluded from becoming civil individuals," (100) he refers to the Amazons in the singular: "the person of the Amazons." 101 The Amazons, a collection of natural persons, unite to form a civil or artificial person
. Pateman's argument here assumes that only one natural person can represent an artificial person
For an exemplification of the use of representation as a device to create the artificial person
(persona ficta) of the state see Quentin Skinner, "Hobbes and the Purely Artificial Person
of the State," in Visions of Politics, 3 vols., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 3: 177-208.
Section 201.02(1) should be clarified to specify the instances in which a transfer of real property to an artificial person
, whether a corporation, partnership, limited liability company, or other entity, is or is not subject to documentary stamp taxes.
Specifically, she rejects Cruz Prados's assertion that the doctrine of the "artificial person
" is an "artificial doctrine of person," and gives instead some credit to Hobbes's theory of legitimization of power.
A related weakness is his relative neglect of what might be termed the phenomenology of role playing, which can explain not only why adversaries and other role occupants may be deaf to the demands of morality but also may make particular moral judgments of which he cannot approve (see, e.g., Elizabeth Wolgast, Ethics of an Artificial Person
One may ask what is the essential difference between a natural and an artificial person
?(4) Both have rights and duties.
A corporation is a body of persons granted a charter that legally recognizes them as a separate entity, an "artificial person
," having its own rights, privileges and liabilities distinct from those of its owners.