Knowledge of the hepatic arterial network and its variations is required to identify hepaticoenteric or collateral splanchnic arterial circulation
. Pretreatment assessment with digital subtraction angiography and nuclear scintigraphy helps direct specific treatment protocols and minimizes nontarget embolization of radiation [3, 4].
In both cases, the mother was under 35 and the embolism was paradoxical, crossing into the arterial circulation
either through a patent foramen ovale or through an atrial septal defect.
Air emboli can also travel into the arterial system via paradoxical embolization through a septal defect, pulmonary venous malformations, and a patent foramen ovale or from venous to arterial circulation
if the pulmonary capillaries reach their maximum filtration rate and are unable to completely capture the air bubbles.
To implement the Kalman filter, a model to represent arterial circulation
is necessary for the process state.
This in turn causes tissue oedema, impairs arterial circulation
, and ultimately results in ischaemia within hours to weeks.8 Our patient also presented with pain 3 days after the onset of her complaints.
Air bubbles in the systemic arterial circulation
can block any arterioles with a diameter of 30-60 [micro]m.
As edema increases, arterial circulation
is disturbed and finally necrosis occurs in the organ (7, 8).
It is believed that bleeding and infarcts do not develop as there are no arterial circulation
problems 5.It can occur as a primary or secondary edema.
The same symptoms associated with gradually increasing obstruction in the arteries of a limb may also be presented by the stump, i.e., the stump may get tired or develop claudication after a brief walk with the prosthesis; stump abrasions may develop after socket contact during a short walk, and the abrasions may be slow-healing or nonhealing, depending upon the degree of loss of stump arterial circulation
. It is evident, therefore, that a prosthesis cannot be properly prescribed unless the arterial circulation
of the stump is accurately evaluated.