The anterior drawer test
and the pivot shift test were simulated, which are the most common physical examinations for diagnosis of ACL injury .
Lachman test: This test is performed in the same way as the anterior drawer test
, but with the knee flexed to 20 degrees.
(5) Minor laxity was noted using the anterior drawer test
, while all other special tests of the knee were unremarkable.
A standard anterior drawer test
can be used to detect ACL sprains, but it is much less sensitive, Dr.
The best known and most frequently used technique is the anterior drawer test
. The other 2 tests, the Lachman test and the pivot shift test, are more difficult to perform and are used less often, especially by physicians untrained in their use.
Baseline measurements included foot posture assessment (using FPI-6), foot characteristics (length, width and length to width ratio), generalized joint laxity (using Beighton and Horan score), lateral ankle ligaments laxity (measured by anterior drawer test
and talar tilt test), static and semidynamic balance (measured by single-leg balance test and star excursion balance test), and goniometric measurement of ankle plantarflexion, ankle dorsiflexion and first metatarsophalangeal dorsiflexion.
Poor <65 points Fair 66 to 81 points Fair-to-good 82 to 92 points Good-to-excellent 93 to 97 points Excellent 98 to 100 points Anterior drawer test
was negative in 33 (97.0%) patients.
Instability was further evaluated with the Lachman test, anterior drawer test
, and pivot-shift test.
However, their results indicated that under active anterior drawer test
with higher loading forces, neither of braces was effective in controlling anterior tibial translation.
Both knees had a positive anterior drawer test
. Bilateral MRIs showed complete agenesis of the ACL but a normal PCL (Figures 6(a)-6(c) and 7(a)-7(c)).