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the decision by a firm on whether to make a component or product itself or to buy it from an external supplier (see OUTSOURCING). The decision will depend upon the combined production costs and TRANSACTION COSTS of the alternatives. Sometimes a firm may adopt mixes of the two policies, producing some quantity of the product itself and buying the remainder, depending upon the relative costs of the sources and security of supply considerations. See TRANSACTION for a more detailed discussion. See INTERNALIZATION, VERTICAL INTEGRATION.
References in classic literature ?
sanguinea, which, as we have seen, is less aided by its slaves than the same species in Switzerland, I can see no difficulty in natural selection increasing and modifying the instinct--always supposing each modification to be of use to the species--until an ant was formed as abjectly dependent on its slaves as is the Formica rufescens.
Instincts comparable with habits, but different in their origin -- Instincts graduated -- Aphides and ants -- Instincts variable -- Domestic instincts, their origin -- Natural instincts of the cuckoo, ostrich, and parasitic bees -- Slave-making ants -- Hive-bee, its cell-making instinct - - Difficulties on the theory of the Natural Selection of instincts -- Neuter or sterile insects -- Summary.
It can be clearly shown that the most wonderful instincts with which we are acquainted, namely, those of the hive-bee and of many ants, could not possibly have been thus acquired.
There in the Black Forest, on the mountainside, I saw an ant go through with such a performance as this with a dead spider of fully ten times his own weight.
Science has recently discovered that the ant does not lay up anything for winter use.
The ant is strong, but we saw another strong thing, where we had not suspected the presence of much muscular power before.
Thornbury, "if an ant did get between the vest and the skin.
The ants were pouring down a glacier of loose earth heaped between the stones of the ruin--large brown ants with polished bodies.
The noise grew suddenly more clamorous, for it was discovered that a long line of ants had found their way on to the table-cloth by a back entrance, and if success could be gauged by noise, Hewet had every reason to think his party a success.
Holding a microscope to the first-mentioned red ant, I saw that, though he was assiduously gnawing at the near fore leg of his enemy, having severed his remaining feeler, his own breast was all torn away, exposing what vitals he had there to the jaws of the black warrior, whose breastplate was apparently too thick for him to pierce; and the dark carbuncles of the sufferer's eyes shone with ferocity such as war only could excite.
Kirby and Spence tell us that the battles of ants have long been celebrated and the date of them recorded, though they say that Huber is the only modern author who appears to have witnessed them.
Fortunately, the ground where the tent had been pitched, being Just before the city gates, was hard and smooth; and while the Ant still crawled about, Glinda discovered it and ran quickly forward to effect its capture But, Just as her hand was descending, the Witch, now fairly frantic with fear, made her last transformation, and in the form of a huge Griffin sprang through the wall of the tent -- tearing the silk asunder in her rush -- and in a moment had darted away with the speed of a whirlwind.