The right ankle joint
was tested in all participants under the following 3 conditions: SS intervention, MOS intervention, and no stretching (control).
It consists of a six-degrees-of-freedom kinematic linkage system, footplate, and handle that measures the AP displacement and IE rotation of the ankle joint
On one hand, this design can ensure the training safety of the patient by allowing compatible robot motion (only three rotations) with the ankle joint
in Figure 4(a).
The ankle joint
was reconstructed with a metal-on-poly hinge joint with a talar replacement, stabilized with a trans-talar and trans-calcanear hydroxyapatite-coated stem.
The bony congruity between the talus, tibia, and fibula provides inherent stability to the ankle joint
, thus protecting against primary osteoarthritis (OA).
It controls the flexion of the hip joints caused by large dorsiflexion at the ankle joint
and the subsequent knee joint flexion; it helps the control of the flexion at the knee joint, as well (Figure 3(c)).However, the eccentric contraction at the knee and hip joints would increase the strain on the weakened muscles with aging.
Clinical and cadaver studies on the ankle joint
The stability of the ankle joint
is not enhanced by fibula fixation, because axial compression fractures are not accompanied by ligamentous damage.
Therefore, in this study, we compared the morphometry of AT, the stiffness of the ankle joint
, and the leg strength of swimmers with that of volleyball players.
Right knee angle: the right knee angle joint is the peak; the right ankle joint
and right hip joint respectively forms two lines with the right hip joint;
Open reduction and internal fixation restores the articular congruity of the ankle joint
. Excellent results are obtained with stable fixation of fracture.
Joint position sense in active and passive mode and kinesthesia were measured to evaluate proprioception of the ankle joint