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In the urban context where much of the animal/human conflict arises from the fact of nonhumans not being human, subaltern animism imagines such animal emancipation as the 'right not to be criminalised' for being nonhuman.
Such terms include animism, savagery, paganism, magic, fetishism, idolatry, juju, primitive, heathenism and ancestral worship.
In Al-Koni's worldview, contrary to recent conceptualisations which tend to polarise animism and the Abrahamic faiths, the monotheisms productively realign but essentially perpetuate the fundamental relationship with self, other and world created by animism.
Such societies are not normally associated with the 'magical' thinking implicit in relational cosmologies, which are normally associated with forms of animism and sympathetic magic, deep environmental awareness and sensitivity.
Keywords: Insular Southeast Asia, animism, Durkheim, sacred/profane, phenomenology, differentiation/identification.
In this section I would like to define the term of animism and provide some theoretical description for what is involved, before discussing several examples of the phenomenon in detail and drawing a number of conclusions.
The philosophy is based on Japan's cultural tradition of animism and may provide a spiritual basis for Japan (and possibly other parts of Asia and beyond), constituting an ethical foundation equivalent to that of the Christian tradition and European culture.
He examines the relationship between biology (biologists) and animism (animists, who tend to be indigenous peoples, and those who study them, like social anthropologists) at what he calls "the human scale.
While traditional animism departs from the gift of animated life in a larger relational system of interconnections between (personal) things and humans, fetishism moves the skill to animate to the humans themselves.
As columnist Barbara Kay wrote: "As a short perusal of ERC's culturally relativistic texts make clear, Wicca, Raelism, aboriginal animism or even a student's own invented religion are all accorded equal spiritual standing with Christianity" (National Post, 12 December 2012).
The author makes a compelling case for exploring what he calls "Christian animism," a panentheistic framework that is based in a "green reading" of Scripture, an erotically charged appreciation for divinely fashioned bodies (and thus Earth's "body"), and a pragmatic application of eco-justice principles.
The north of Nigeria is predominantly Muslim, while Christianity and animism are the main religions in the south.