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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
In addition, samples of breast muscle were submitted for anaerobic culture.
Unfortunately, our patient was initially falsely diagnosed as a CN PJI based on the fact that the orthopedic surgeon had ordered anaerobic cultures when the patient was seen in the clinic.
Some authors report an absence of anaerobes that is in part attributed to lack of anaerobic culture tests.
All culture samples were obtained from the small intestine endoscopically and were placed into an anaerobic sample container for aerobic and anaerobic cultures.
Anaerobic culture of a wound specimen from the third patient is pending, and a nasal aspirate from the fourth patient was negative.
Over the course of nearly 30 years, we have had extensive experience with all types of anaerobic culture methodologies, from gassed-out jars and heat-sealed bags to the anaerobic chamber.
Along with aerobic culture method, specimens requested for anaerobic culture (10 samples) were streaked on Brucella blood agar and incubated at 37[degrees]C in anaerobic jar with Gaspak.
Whereas in Rosenblatt's method of anaerobic culture, known as Anaerobic bag culture method, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulphate-saturated steel wool.
3 hours; Table 2) and more frequently in inoculated anaerobic culture bottles (68%) than in aerobic culture bottles (13%).
Anaerobic culture of the wounds were negative for Clostridium.
The role of anaerobes in CSOM is often questioned as they are mostly detected in cases with extensive cholesteatoma or granulation tissue however, it is advocated that while investigating pathogenic organisms in CSOM requests for anaerobic culture should be included and the medical therapy should be directed at the eradication of the pathogenic aerobic and anaerobic organisms.