It was found the predominance of frenulum with fixing in the middle third and sublingual caruncles and between the middle third and the apex and the inferior alveolar crest
, normal and altered, respectively.
S- Symphysis menti, MF-Mental Foramen, PB- posterior border of ramus, X- Alveolar crest
, Y- Lower border of the body of mandible
Combination of "Osteon" and "Colla Guide" resorbable membrane facilitates increasing efficacy of the treatment, preserving alveolar crest
height and shape.
(a) For the patients with dentulous jaws, the insertion location of the installation was at the palatal top of the alveolar crest
between the first and the second molars; for the patients with edentulous jaws, the insertion location of the installation was 5 mm to the palatal side from the point of the intersection of the vertical line going through the infraorbital foramen and the top of alveolar crest
It is reasonable to assume that such residual alveolar crest
would undergo more contraction compared with a 4-wall extraction socket defect when is left to heal spontaneously.
(from line joining most inferior points of borders of bony orbits to line joining inferior margins of images of zygomatic processes divided by point from zygomatic process to alveolar crest
in maxillary first molar regions) in dentulous maxilla.
Conservative treatment of root fractures below the alveolar crest
may require reduction of the displaced fragment immobilization and relief of the occlusion.
Then, intra-oral examination of the edentulous space showed a well managed space to symmetrically replace the missing right central incisor accord- ing to the left central incisor, a narrow alveolar crest
indicating a horizontal bone loss at the site of the missing tooth.
The distance between the lower border of the artery and the alveolar crest
(A), bone height from the sinus floor to the ridge crest (B), distance from the artery to the medial sinus wall (C), and the diameter and location of the artery were determined (Figure 1); occurrence of sinus septa and membrane thickening were also recorded from CBCT scans.
These materials help improve bone defects in AP fractures restoring the alveolar crest
height and shape.
The periodontist evaluated each radiograph on the presence or absence of radiographic calculus, degree of periodontal involvement, and degree of osseous deformities in the alveolar bone inferior to the alveolar crest
. For degree of periodontal involvement, the evaluation question asked, "Does the enclosed radiograph show evidence of bone loss in the anterior alveolar bone, as measured from the CEJ [cementoenamel junction] to the alveolar crest
?" The periodontist evaluated for no bone loss (CEJ to alveolar crest
= 1.5 mm), minimal bone loss (CEJ to alveolar crest
2-4 mm), moderate bone loss (CEJ to alveolar crest
5-7mm), or advanced bone loss (CEJ to alveolar crest
When the implantation site for the oblique bone surface (such as zygomatic alveolar crest
, retromolar pad, external oblique ridge, etc.), the implanting nails may slide along the periosteum within the mucous membrane, without entering the cortical bone and slipping off.