The "right-to-work" law aims to make such agency shops
and the withholding of dues from non-union members illegal.
The Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 banned the closed shop but left it to the state's discretion whether to also prohibit the union shop and agency shop
State legislatures can take other steps to reassert their control over public workforce costs: limit the points of negotiation in collective bargaining, remove health care benefits from collective bargaining, index the upper limits of union compensation demands to inflation, eliminate public-sector agency shops
, bar use of check-off dues for politics, amend arbitration rules, give cities greater scope of action in dealing with their unionized workforces, end "the accounting tricks and gimmicks they have used to calculate their pension and health liabilities," and move away from defined-benefit pensions toward defined-contribution plans.
of unions to fully enforce agency shop
provisions against employees who
Thus the issue of collective bargaining for teachers, which is not at all universal among the states, and its specific sub-issues, such as the legally correct tailoring of agency shop
procedures, remain hotly debated.
Furthermore, union representatives point out that the museum's other unions have agency shops
The Rand Formula is basically the same as the agency shop
in the US.
The concept of an agency shop
that required all workers within a bargaining unit to pay the equivalent of union dues, whether or not they were members of the union, was first developed at the Ford Motor Company plant in Ontario, Canada, in 1946.
In an agency shop
workers must pay the equivalent of membership dues to the union even if they are not union members.
The agency shop
labor contract, in which an employee is not required to join a union but must pay it the equivalent of dues and fees, was ruled constitutional by the Supreme Court where permitted by a state.
The Court ruled that nonunion employees working under an "agency shop
" agreement that does not compel union membership, but requires employees to pay dues or equivalent service fees, may not be required to pay full agency shop
fees if a portion of the money is used for political, legislative, social, or labor organizing activities they oppose.
An agency shop
clause and an evergreen clause that would allow contract terms to continue between their expiration and a new agreement, or until an impasse in negotiations is reached.