affirmative obligations

Affirmative Obligation

Financial Industry Regulatory Authority requirements on NASDAQ market makers. Affirmative obligations include but are not limited to ensuring a two-sided market always exists, reporting price and trading volume within 90 seconds of each transaction, and participating in the Small Order Execution System. It should not be confused with an affirmative covenant.

affirmative obligations

Requirements imposed by the National Association of Securities Dealers on Nasdaq market makers who must meet certain standards, including timely reporting of price and volume data, participating in the Small Order Execution System, making a two-sided market on a continuous basis, and quoting firm prices.
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The ten issues "address matters of different moral weight and urgency", some involve intrinsically evil acts, which can never be approved while others "involve affirmative obligations to seek the common good.
It is possible, however, that courts' refusal to extend affirmative constitutional duties for welfare and abortions may be more the result of judicial skepticism about the reach of those rights than reluctance to create affirmative obligations.
31) Yet to the very limited extent that property law's affirmative obligations have been explored, scholars have either claimed that these obligations attach to the ownership of assets of exceptional social importance, such as heritage buildings (32) or inns, (33) or that they amount to mere aspiration in an era of environmental degradation.
Stated more directly, I am hesitant to impose affirmative obligations on the state where that obligation is not explicit in the language of the constitution.
Professor Ray couches his arguments in the context of the growing number of socioeconomic rights in new constitutions that impose affirmative obligations on the governments enforceable by the courts.
The statement imposes affirmative obligations upon the auditor to go beyond the information provided by the entity, and to seek out additional information that may lead to the discovery of misrepresentation or fraud.
In DeShaney, Webster, and Gonzales, the judiciary disavowed the idea of positive social rights by finding that the Constitution affords no affirmative obligations, only negative liberties; government inaction is constitutionally immaterial, and government's failure to act brings no constitutional remedy.
Both Sarbanes-Oxley and the federal Sentencing Guidelines for Business Organizations impose affirmative obligations on corporate executives to implement compliance and ethics programs to address these types of issues.
4) These distinctions are particularly acute in litigation over the affirmative obligations state constitutions impose on state legislatures.
Securities companies will be required to recognize and act on their affirmative obligations to meet the need for financial services in all the communities they serve.
For general descriptions of two GSEs--Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac--including the benefits they derive from government sponsorship and their affirmative obligations to promote home ownership among lower-income households, see Congressional Budget Office, "Assessing the Public Costs and Benefits of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac," May 1996; General Accounting Office, "Housing Enterprises: Potential Impacts of Severing Government Sponsorship," May 1996; U.

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