# variance

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Related to additive genetic variance: Quantitative genetics, narrow sense heritability

## Variance

A measure of dispersion of a set of data points around their mean value. The mathematical expectation of the average squared deviations from the mean. The square root of the variance is the standard deviation.

## Variance

1. In accounting, the difference between the estimated and actual cost of a project or other operation.

2. In risk, the average deviation of a set of data points from their mean.

## variance

A statistical measure of the variability of measured datum from the average value of the set of data. A high variance, indicating relatively great variability, also indicates that the average is of minimal use in projecting future values for the data. Standard deviation is the square root of variance. Financial analysts use both statistical measures to weigh investment risk. Compare covariance. See also risk.

## variance

1. the difference between budgeted and actual results (see BUDGETING), or between STANDARD COSTS/revenues and actual costs/revenues. Variances can be:
1. adverse or negative when actual revenues fall short of budget or standard, or when actual costs exceed budget or standard;
2. favourable or positive when actual revenues exceed budget or standard, or when actual costs are less than budget or standard.
3. a measure of variation within a group of numerical observations, specifically the average of the squared deviations of the observations from the group AVERAGE.

See STANDARD DEVIATION.

## variance

Permission to use a property in a manner that does not meet current zoning requirements.In order to gain a variance,the property owner usually has to show a hardship on the property—not on the owner—if the requested use is not allowed. It is considered a hardship if the property will otherwise remain vacant or if a structurally sound improvement must be demolished to allow some other use. Buyers with a signed purchase contract can usually petition for a variance; this is commonly one of the steps in a due diligence plan that must be completed in a satisfactory manner before the buyer will purchase property.

References in periodicals archive ?
Analyzing Table 2 we can observe that the estimatives for additive genetic variances obtained on cycle 1 for PH and EH traits were of 162.5 and 85.05 [(cm [plant.sup.-1]).sup.2], respectively, and on cycle 2 were of 91.20 and 50.52 [(cm [plant.sup.-1]).sup.2], being considered high when compared to values obtained by Silva et al.
Maternal additive genetic variances ([Mathematical Expression Omitted]) are two to three times as large as direct additive genetic variances ([Mathematical Expression Omitted]).
The efficiency measures used are described below: (i) the molecular heritability was given by [h.sup.2] = [[sigma].sup.2.sub.a]/[[sigma].sup.2.sub.y], where [[sigma].sup.2.sub.y] is the phenotypic variance and is the additive genetic variance estimated by REML in G-BLUP and estimated through [mathematical expression not reproducible].
Epistasis and the effect of founder events on the additive genetic variance. Evolution 42:441-454.
The absence of environmental effects on the additive genetic variance for morphological traits may be relevant to comparisons of heritabilities in field and laboratory environments.
In other words, additive genetic variance rates in females are increasingly greater than those in males as from the second biometry, providing a ratio between increasing variances.
Traits with moderate to high additive genetic variance and heritability were ALP, BET, and hop storability.
Epistasis and the increase in additive genetic variance: implication for phase 1 of Wright's shifting-balance process.
Heritability trends for daily milk, fat, and proteins yields were similar to trends for additive genetic variance but were less extreme at the start and end of the curve because of higher permanent environmental variances.
Furthermore, high heritability combined with high expected genetic advance proved the involvement of additive genetic variance, therefore simple selection may be effective for improvement of these traits.

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