variance

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Related to additive genetic variance: Quantitative genetics, narrow sense heritability

Variance

A measure of dispersion of a set of data points around their mean value. The mathematical expectation of the average squared deviations from the mean. The square root of the variance is the standard deviation.

Variance

1. In accounting, the difference between the estimated and actual cost of a project or other operation.

2. In risk, the average deviation of a set of data points from their mean.

variance

A statistical measure of the variability of measured datum from the average value of the set of data. A high variance, indicating relatively great variability, also indicates that the average is of minimal use in projecting future values for the data. Standard deviation is the square root of variance. Financial analysts use both statistical measures to weigh investment risk. Compare covariance. See also risk.

variance

  1. the difference between budgeted and actual results (see BUDGETING), or between STANDARD COSTS/revenues and actual costs/revenues. Variances can be:
    1. adverse or negative when actual revenues fall short of budget or standard, or when actual costs exceed budget or standard;
    2. favourable or positive when actual revenues exceed budget or standard, or when actual costs are less than budget or standard.
    3. a measure of variation within a group of numerical observations, specifically the average of the squared deviations of the observations from the group AVERAGE.

      See STANDARD DEVIATION.

variance

Permission to use a property in a manner that does not meet current zoning requirements.In order to gain a variance,the property owner usually has to show a hardship on the property—not on the owner—if the requested use is not allowed. It is considered a hardship if the property will otherwise remain vacant or if a structurally sound improvement must be demolished to allow some other use. Buyers with a signed purchase contract can usually petition for a variance; this is commonly one of the steps in a due diligence plan that must be completed in a satisfactory manner before the buyer will purchase property.

References in periodicals archive ?
The total heritability is a function of the direct additive genetic variance [Mathematical Expression Omitted], the maternal additive genetic variance [Mathematical Expression Omitted], and the direct-maternal additive genetic covariance ([[Sigma].
The phenotypic variance showed similar behavior to the additive genetic variance, and although the residual variance was lower than the genetic variance and permanent environment throughout lactation, this influenced the behavior of the phenotypic variance at the beginning and at the end of the curve (Figure ID).
In a recurrent selection program that recombined only five lines, Guzman and Lamkey (2000) found no significant decrease in additive genetic variance for maize grain yield after five generations.
In addition, there was a decrease in the additive genetic variance for crossvein length in the stressful environment.
Traits with moderate to high additive genetic variance and heritability were ALP, BET, and hop storability.
In animal improvement programs, particularly in genetic evaluations, it is frequently assumed that the variances remain constant over generations of selection, however in closed herds, it is expected that selection changes not only the mean of traits but also their additive genetic variance.
However, this assumes that FA has a heritable component, in particular that the additive genetic variance in FA is significantly greater than zero.
Alternately, Strabel and Misztal (1999) reported that the maximum additive genetic variance estimate was in early lactation of Pohsh Black and White cattle.
In crop plants, generally, heritability estimates in broad sense are higher than narrow sense because narrow sense heritability uses only additive genetic variance as a numerator over the total phenotypic variance.
Assuming no dominance and no epistasis, the additive genetic variance in a bottlenecked population decreases as a linear function of the inbreeding coefficient (Falconer and Mackay, 1996, p.
A] are the total phenotypic variance and additive genetic variance, respectively, and [Mathematical Expression Omitted] is the mean value of the trait.