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Analyzing the open-circuit voltage absolute temperature coefficient variation with the irradiance, for all types of the analyzed photovoltaic cells, a linear dependence is observed (see Figure 6(a)) and also, a linear dependency is obtained for the absolute temperature coefficient of the maximum power (see Figure 6(b)).
According to several authors, temperature dependence on diffusivity coefficient follows the Arrhenius equation (Equation 5), where Ea is the activation energy (kJ mo[L.sup.-1]); [D.sub.0] is the pre-exponential factor ([m.sup.2] [s.sup.-1]); T is the absolute temperature (K); R is the gas constant (kJ moL [K.sup.-1]).
Environmental factors may be responsible for variability [25] that has been linked to cold temperature, high relative humidity, winds, precipitation, and cloudy days and in our study, the number of days with temperatures below 0[degrees]C and minimum absolute temperatures were significantly correlated.
Let FOATs characterized by their absolute temperatures [T.sub.1], [T.sub.2] and [T.sub.3] and applied stresses [[delta].sub.1], [[delta].sub.2] and [[delta].sub.3] be run until failures, and the respective measured times-to-failure (TTF) be [t.sub.1], [t.sub.2] and [t.sub.3], respectively.
The paper also describes tests of the suitability of aluminum- and polysilicon-based Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) to measure the temperature of the silicon-substrate, which is required to convert a temperature difference determined with an integrated thermocouple or from the thermal resistance of the microhotplate into the absolute temperature of the microhotplate.
To = absolute temperature of outside air, [degrees]R
The constants of proportionality (thermal conductivity [[lambda].sub.j], liquid diffusivity [[kappa].sub.j], vapour diffusivity [[mu].sub.j] - [[delta].sub.j]) are assumed to be functions of local moisture content [X.sub.j] and temperature [[??].sub.j] x [[rho.sub.j] is the density of the drying material, [R.sub.v] the individual gas constant for water vapor, [T.sub.j] is the absolute temperature and [P.sub.vj] the water vapor partial pressure of node j.
The energy which is radiated from some surface is proportionally to the fourth degree of absolute temperature of the same surface.
In 1854 he was awarded the Keith Medal of the Royal Society of Edinburgh for researches in thermodynamics and in 1859 he proposed a scale of absolute temperature with a Rankine degree being equal to 10F.
The latter is not linearly proportional to absolute temperature but varies its output current by the second order law to keep the gain of high-gain amplifier constant throughout the temperature ranging from -25 to 125[degrees]C.
Dan Hjalmarsson, GAC's Regional Director for the Middle East says that the company is honoured to clinch the accolade in the specialised field of perishable logistics where absolute temperature integrity throughout the cold chain is critical in keeping the products safe, viable and fresh.
Selex Communications is reportedly in the process of developing a software-defined radio that will feature a cryo-cooled, digital supercondutivity technology, analogue-to-digital Asic, developed by Hypres, that will reside in an absolute temperature circuit.