(4.) The work participation rate
, set at 25% in 1997, increased to 50% in 2002.
Two other exclusions from the work participation rate
are allowed under federal law, at the state's discretion: (1) for mothers with children under age one, but only for a lifetime maximum of 12 months; and (2) for families who have been sanctioned for nonparticipation, but only for 3 months in every 12-month period.
A State's annual work participation rate
is based on the State's average monthly rate for the year.
The high work participation rate
of lone mothers makes Japan appear as an ideal scenario for policy makers in the United States, who have made a greater work participation rate
a primary goal of reform.
Table 1, which provides a comparative view of the labour force participation and work participation rates
based on the 1973 Housing, Economic and Demographic (HED) Survey, the 1981 Census, Labour Force Surveys and Fertility-related surveys; show that (1) the female activity rates, on the whole, are much lower than the corresponding male rates, and (2) the female rates, given in the 1981 Census, are lower by more than 50 percent for urban areas and more than 60 percent for rural areas in comparison with the levels reported in the 1973 HED.
Hence, this study is limited to demographic, urban population, sex ratio, literacy rate, educational attainment, work participation rate
and political representation of the community in the state.
Table 1: Sector-wise percentage distribution of workers by sex in India (1999-2000) Sector Male Female Primary 54.9 76.2 Secondary 17.8 11.8 Tertiary 27.3 12 Source: Human Development Report, 2006 Table 2: Development indicators of women Development Indicators Women Men Total *Demography Population (in million in 264.1 284 548.1 1971 and 2001) Decennial Growth (1971 and 2001) 24.9 24.4 24.6 *Vital Statistics Sex Ratio (1971 and 2001) 930 - - Life Expectancy at Birth 50.2 50.5 50.9 (1971 and 2001) Mean age at Marriage 17.2 22.4 - (1971 and 1991) *Work and Employment Work Participation Rate
14.2 52.8 34.3 (1971 and 1991) Organized sector (No.
* Have you given strong consideration to serving some families outside the TANF program so that parents unable to work 30 hours per week or those in activities such as substance abuse treatment or post-secondary education would not be counted against the state in its work participation rate
First, we show that, with a comprehensive list of control variables that include demographic, economic, and policy variables and a rich set of interaction terms, we are able to develop a model that rather successfully explains both the levels of and changes in welfare and work participation rates
among single mothers across states, time, and various demographic groups for the whole 1980-2002 period.
For the calculation of GEI and WDI the following three indicators were used: Work Participation Rate
, Literacy Rate (7+), and Infant Survival Rate.
Fifteen have current work participation rates
under 25 percent, so they would have to more than double them to reach the new federal standard.
The source of the real wage earnings increase can be decomposed into the fraction due to the increased work participation rate
, that due to increases in average hours worked per week (conditional on employment), and that due to increases in real hourly wages.