In withdrawal reflexes
, flexor muscles play a prominent role, and interestingly, in dystonia of CRPS there is a conspicuous involvement of flexor postures, which may hint towards the involvement of spinal motor programs that mediate NWRs (63).
Spinal withdrawal reflexes
in the human lower limbs.
Table 2 shows the effect of zein-based polymeric nanofibers and zein-based polymeric nanofibers loaded with quercetin at various concentrations on latency of foot withdrawal reflex
. Our data showed a significantly decreased foot withdrawal reflex
latency in diabetic rats with sciatic nerve crush injury that received zein-based polymeric nanofibers at days 6 and 9 of the study period (p value < 0.01 all, compared with diabetic rats with nerve crush injury that received no treatment).
Third, the improved TA activity likely contributed to the FES+RTT group's tendency to generate more regular ankle flexion and exhibit less dragging or withdrawal reflex
than the RS group.
On day 60, colorectal distension (CRD) was given and abdominal withdrawal reflex
(AWR) was quantified as scores in the individual rat of all groups.
For example, one would predict that noxious stimuli should have little or no effect on the synaptic strength of the sensorimotor connection in the tail withdrawal reflex
In addition to the parameters of physiologic functions, pedal withdrawal reflex
, in which the leg flexes in response to painful stimulation of the digits or pinch of the interdigital region, was a good indicator for the depth of anesthesia in the ostriches.
A significant increase in the tail withdrawal reflex
was observed for the swertiamarin treatment at both the doses with percent protections of 150 and 200, respectively.
As with other forms of defensive behaviors, the memory for sensitization of the withdrawal reflex
is graded, and repeated tail shocks lead to a longer-lasting memory: A single tail shock produces short-term sensitization that lasts for minutes, whereas repeated tail shocks given at spaced intervals produce long-term sensitization that lasts for up to several weeks (Castellucci et al.
is defined as the motor response intended to protect the body from painful stimuli.
In applications in people with SCI, functional electrical stimulation (FES) is one neuroprosthetic approach to improve locomotor function that stimulates the peroneal nerves to elicit a flexion withdrawal reflex
and thereby cause limb movement .
Site specificity of short-term and long-term habituation in the tail-elicited siphon withdrawal reflex