Then in 2008 the FCC opened up white space
to other commercial operations.
Much has been said, and criticized, aboutMicrosoftPresidentBrad Smith's goal of bringing broadband connectivity to rural America via the use of free "white space
" — that buffer zone on the spectrum that is found between broadcast TV stations.
Microsoft has said that a mix of its TV white spaces
technology, satellite internet and other connection methods could prove economically transformative for rural Americans who lack reliable access to broadband.
Moving beyond the U.S., TV white spaces
broadband could find a home in developing countries like in the Philippines where broadband internet access is still limited.
For example, Finney mentions how a history of lynching and injustice have led to a suspicious attitude towards "White spaces
." These shared experiences and inherited memories shape African Americans' "cognitive map" of the environment and society (p.
That approach calls for them to identify the "white space
" -- or unrealized potential -- in terms of product categories and more.
Following the report of the FCC's Spectrum Policy Task Force, the FCC initiated a Notice of Inquiry (Federal Communications Commission, 2002) inviting comments on the use of white space
spectrum for unlicensed use.
 propose a PU's utility function based on its monetary gain (e.g., the price set by PUs of white spaces
[31.] COGEU, "Cognitive radio systems for efficient sharing of TV white spaces
in European context," 73101, Jan.
The consortium said that it explored and measured a range of applications, such as rural wireless broadband, urban pop-up coverage and the emerging "machine-to-machine" communication, and found TV white spaces
can be successfully used to help satisfy the demand for wireless connectivity.
The other companies which make up the Cambridge TV White Spaces
Consortium are BSkyB, Cambridge Consultants, Neul, Nokia, Samsung, Spectrum Bridge and TTP.
Vacant spectrum from unused analog television bands - commonly called "TV white spaces
" - presents an important new frequency for Wi-Fi operation, and today's FCC ruling provides usable guidance that is responsive to industry recommendations.