In some cases, firms belong both to an Export Trading Company and a Webb-Pomerene Association.
Firms belonging to both Webb-Pomerene Associations and ETCs
There are at least six cases in which Webb-Pomerene Associations and ETCs have shared at least one member in common.
Table 4 shows that Webb-Pomerene Associations have usually had much higher average levels of exports than have ETCs.
The 1978 FTC Report notes that 8 of 26 active Webb-Pomerene Associations (30%) responded affirmatively to the question on the FTC questionnaire asking whether the Association helps to establish price abroad.
Export Trading Companies and Webb-Pomerene Associations both offer their members limited antitrust immunity, but the two groups of organizations differ in several ways.
1) Initially, a Webb-Pomerene Association (WPA) had to serve as a foreign selling agent for its members in order to qualify for an exemption from domestic antitrust laws.
I assumed that an industry was interested in an export cartel if any firms in the industry registered as a Webb-Pomerene Association in 1962 according to the U.
Export Trading Companies, the heir-apparent to Webb-Pomerene Associations.
Existing evidence concerning Webb-Pomerene Associations in practice
15) The two most exhaustive studies of Webb-Pomerene Associations, by the U.