The Canadian state worried that if the US successfully negotiated voluntary export restraints
, Japan would simply channel its exports to Canada, overwhelming its small domestic market.
of Virginia) introduces key concepts of international economics through contemporary headlines often of interest to students, incorporating a simplified account of the Melitz model, two offshoring models, and the Kala Krishna theory of voluntary export restraints
domestically produced automobiles and, hence, that Japanese voluntary export restraints
were not binding; pre-1986 results are inconclusive, but consistent with binding voluntary export restraints
Included here are import-licensing schemes, antidumping duty actions, tariff-rate quotas, price actions, import quotas, and voluntary export restraints
1985), "Why Voluntary Export Restraints
Are Voluntary", Canadian Journal of Economics, Vol.
According to Anderson (1992) antidumping actions are often used as a tactical tool by countries to foster voluntary export restraints
He ably portrays the costs of AD duties and of the voluntary export restraints
that preceded them, and he notes that other countries (including developing ones) have started imitating the United States by imposing similar duties.
economic relationship has revolved around voluntary export restraints
imposed on Japan to reduce its trade surplus with the U.
The outcome depends on whether the country restricts its trade with tariffs, import quotas or voluntary export restraints
The drop in the past months apparently reflects voluntary export restraints
by major Japanese steelmakers under the threat of antidumping duties.
Daley said the United States will seek voluntary export restraints
by Japanese steelmakers to stop the import surge.
Grey-area measures such as voluntary export restraints
are to be phased out.