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Oral. Verbal contracts are enforceable unless they fall within the Statute of Frauds.

• Verbal wills, called nuncupative wills, are usually not enforceable.

• Verbal statements made by someone before death, and which would have the effect of increasing or decreasing that person's estate, will usually not be allowed into evidence by virtue of the dead man's statute.

• Averbal agreement regarding the location of the true boundary line between property owners is often enforceable; a verbal agreement to compromise the line between two property owners is usually not enforceable.

References in periodicals archive ?
We have noted that autoclitics talk about the controlling variables of primary verbal operants and that philosophers, too, have recognized that sentences talk about themselves.
A tacted controlling variable may have been the cause of the verbal behavior (VB); if so, the VB is true (reacted to as such by listeners).
Skinner's analysis supports the understanding of an operant class of behaviors- verbal behaviors- wherein different members may vary in form while being 'the same' operant because of the similar functional control.
It analyzes the environmental contexts in which particular verbal responses occur.
An analysis of verbal behavior should first determine the units of analysis.
To the contrary, the same verbal response may be controlled by different independent variables in different situations.
While Skinner (1957) emphasized that the verbal operants were independent from each other (Greer & Speckman, 2009; Lamarre & Holland, 1985), more recent research has shown that the acquisition of one operant can facilitate the acquisition of other operants (Egan & Barnes-Holmes, 2009; see Grow & Kodak, 2010).
Sundberg and Partington (1998), for example, translated the elementary verbal behaviors into several operational language skills and created an evaluation and intervention tool from this model called the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (ABLLS).
According to Michael (1984), the extensive literature on language acquisition does not use the concepts, terms, or analyses presented in Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957).
In recent years training protocols have begun to use Skinner's terminology (Sundberg and Partington, 1998) and a plethora of "verbal behavior" or "applied verbal behavior" treatment programs are now widely available.
The first area may be described in general terms as the acquisition of verbal repertoires.
In VB, Skinner classified verbal operants according to the type of antecedent control that determines the form of the response.

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