Under the terms of the Cooperation Agreements signed with these countries, these grain imports enjoy preferential systems based on reductions of or exemption from the EU's variable levies
. Under the 1994 Agreement on Agriculture concluded under the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations, the EU has undertaken to apply a system of charging for the variable levies
and replace them by customs duties from July 1, 1995 onwards.
The broad definition of NTMs includes certain para-tariff measures, import deposits and surcharges, variable levies
, anti-dumping/countervailing duty actions (including investigations, duties, and undertakings), quantitative restrictions (including quotas/prohibitions, restraints under the Multi-Fibre Arrangement (MFA), non-automatic licenses, voluntary export restraints, state monopolies), import surveillance, automatic licenses, and certain price control measures.