Uniform Gifts to Minors Act


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Uniform Gifts to Minors Act (UGMA)

Legislation that provides a tax-effective manner of transferring property to minors without the complications of trusts or guardianship restrictions.

Uniform Gifts to Minors Act

Legislation in several U.S. states allowing cash or securities to be transferred from a donor to a minor child without needing to set up a trust. Specifically, this act was intended to allow transfers to persons under 18 or 21 (depending on the jurisdiction). The act allows for the giving of gifts to children up to a certain amount in value without any tax consequences. These gifts are held in a custodianship until the child reaches the age of majority. The custodian is appointed by the donor (and is often the donor himself/herself). The UGMA was set up to allow these transfers to occur without a lawyer needing to set up a trust, a process that can be quite complicated and sometimes expensive. See also: Uniform Transfers to Minors Act.

Uniform Gifts to Minors Act (UGMA)

Uniform state laws that facilitate irrevocable gifts to a minor by eliminating the requirement of a guardian or trust. A custodian, who may be the donor, is appointed to manage the gift, but full rights to the principal and income reside with the minor. Under 1986 tax reform, only the first $1,000 of income from these custodial accounts will be taxed at the child's rate if the child is under 14 years of age. Income above $1,000 is taxed at the donor's rate. When the child turns 14, all income from the trust is taxed at the child's rate.

Uniform Gifts to Minors Act (UGMA).

Under the UGMA, you as an adult can set up a custodial account for a minor and put assets such as cash, securities, and mutual funds into it.

You pay no fees or charges to set up the account, and there is no limit on the amount you can put into it. To avoid owing potential gift tax, however, you may want to limit what you add each year to an amount that qualifies for the annual gift tax exclusion.

One advantage of an UGMA custodial account is that you can transfer to it assets that you expect to increase in value. That way, any capital gains occur in the account, and you avoid potential estate taxes that might have been due had you owned the asset at your death.

If you sell an asset in the account, taxable capital gains are calculated at the beneficiary's capital gains tax rate provided he or she is 18 or older. Taxable capital gains are calculated at the parents' rate if the child is younger than 18.

One potential disadvantage of a custodial account is that any gift to the account is irrevocable.

The assets become the property of the beneficiary from the moment they go into the account, even though as a minor he or she cannot legally control activity in the account or take money out. At majority, which typically occurs at 18 or 21 depending on the state, the beneficiary may use the assets as he or she wishes.

In addition, if you are both the donor and the custodian, and die while the beneficiary is still a minor, the assets are considered part of your estate. That could make your estate's value large enough to be vulnerable to estate taxes.

References in periodicals archive ?
Such an investor might have considered whether purchasing the bonds under the "Uniform Gifts to Minors Act" (UGMA) would shift income taxation to the child's relatively lower bracket.
If the parent already has set up a Uniform Gifts to Minors Act or Uniform Transfer to Minors Act account in a child's name, have the parent convert it and other assets held by the child to a 529 account held by the parent, Harrington urges.
(5.) The Uniform Gifts to Minors Act (UGMA), called the Uniform Transfers to Minors Act (UTMA) in some states, is simply a way for minors to own securities.
In some states, age 18 is the age of majority, which means your offspring can do whatever he or she wants to with any money you've put into a custodial account (such as those specified in the Uniform Gifts to Minors Act).
When investing in a child's name, setting up a custodial account under the Uniform Gifts to Minors Act (UGMA) is simple and inexpensive.
(342.) Campfield et al., supra note 148, at 156-57 (the Crummey trust permits greater flexibility than either [sections] 2503(c) or the Uniform Gifts to Minors Act).
The Uniform Commercial Code and the Uniform Gifts to Minors Act are among their major accomplishments.
ONE OF THE LEAST-COMPLICATED LONG-term methods of funding education for children is a gifting plan under the Uniform Gifts to Minors Act (UGMA) or the Uniform Transfers to Minors Act (UTMA).
Donee's Age at Which Custodianship Established Under the Uniform Gifts To Minors Act (UGMA) or the Uniform Transfers To Minors Act (UTMA) Ends
Ownership and beneficiary arrangements involving minors are governed by either the Uniform Transfers to Minors Act (UTMA) or the Uniform Gifts to Minors Act (UGMA) (see page 562).
There are three basic means of qualifying "cared-for gifts" to minors under Section 2503: (1) a Section 2503(b) trust, (2) a Section 2503(c) trust, or (3) the Uniform Gifts to Minors Act (or the Uniform Transfers to Minors Act).
In such cases, state-sponsored qualified tuition programs may be preferable to making gifts to a custodial account under the Uniform Gifts to Minors Act or the Uniform Transfers to Minors Act.

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