Since subcooling, superheat, and compressor discharge temperature are more sensitive to refrigerant line faults than the remaining four features, the refrigerant line classifier uses only these three features to detect the presence of refrigerant line faults (refrigerant undercharge
, overcharge, and liquid line restriction [LLR]).
Implemented Faults Causing Secondary Fault Indications System Implemented First Fault Level Falsely Indicated Fault Fault Indicating Secondary Fault Cooler Compressor valve Third System undercharge
leak Cooler Condenser First Compressor valve leak fouling Cooler Liquid-line First System undercharge
restriction Freezer Liquid-line First System undercharge
restriction Table 9 also shows a secondary fault indication for compressor valve leakage when condenser fouling was implemented.
"Now with interest rates going up rather than down, however, we are finding a swing from [discrepancies resulting in] just overcharges to undercharges
claims filed after a contract has been negotiated are clearly opportunistic.
The ICC concluded that under those circumstances "it would be fundamentally unfair not to consider a shipper's equitable defenses to a claim for undercharges
."(26) The Commission's rationale was that the passage of the MCA called for a new competitive atmosphere that made the strict application of section 10761 unnecessary to deter discrimination.(27) The Commission also asserted that it had the authority under section 10701 to determine whether the collection of an undercharge
in a particular case would constitute an unreasonable practice.(28)
To avoid freight undercharge
claims in the future, both ConAgra attorney Peter Greene and the NAW suggest that shippers use motor contract carriers.
Through an audit of its records it was determined that Maislin had "undercharges
" (the negotiated rate was less than the filed rate) of $187,923 for services provided to Primary Steel, Inc.
These additional amounts were also known as "undercharges
." Collectively, the problem was staggering: The ICC once estimated the total amount of undercharges
at $27 billion .
Firms presently dealing with common carriers should reexamine their exposure to future undercharges
due to the difficulty of verifying on a daily basis that every rate has been lawfully filed in their carriers' tariffs.
claims can likely be settled for 15-20 percent of the total, NBWA said.
The NBWA noted that the Senate has passed its undercharge
relief bill (S.
On March 8, 1993, the Supreme Court put to rest collection agencies' threats that shippers and receivers must settle undercharge
claims prior to seeking relief from the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC).