From the numerical perspective, simulations of EMAT transduction and ultrasonic wave
propagation were carried out in COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b using the Murnaghan hyperelasticity model, harmonic generation from the fundamental longitudinal wave, while time domain signals show very small difference.
In a reference, it was assumed that the P wave or ultrasonic wave
was perpendicular from the transducer's surface .
The feedback from the ultrasonic waves
is delivered to the mathematical models so that the robotic orientation can be adjusted to maintain the normal vector of inspected surface that coincides with the beam axis of probe, if the spatial relationship between the specimen and probe is defined.
Based on the results of AE filtering experimental results, the loading process for the ultrasonic test experiments carried out in this study is as follows: (1) measure the ultrasonic wave
parameters before the process of loading, (2) load up to 1.5 kN and maintain the force for 3-4 minutes; (3) load up to 4.5 kN and maintain the force for 3-4 minutes; (4) unload up to 1.5 kN and maintain the force for 3-4 minutes; (5) load up to 7.5 kN and maintain the force for 3-4 minutes; (6) unload up to 4.5 kN and maintain the force for 3-4 minutes; (7) load up to 9 kN and maintain the force for 3-4 minutes; (8) load up to the maximum stress (i.e., up to the point the coal samples produce damage) and unload completely.
After 30min of pre-treatment for the reduction of hydrocarbon contaminant with nZVI particles and ultrasonic wave
, H2O2 was added at concentrations of 0, 10mM,20mM,and 30mM in solution.
The receiver detects the ultrasonic wave
transmitting the specimen.
Thus straight chain homologue is functioning strongly as far as ultrasonic wave
propagation is concerned.
In this respect, we may express the vector displacements of a longitudinal [u.sub.l] and of a transverse ultrasonic wave
[u.sub.t] via the second quantization vector wave functions of Sound Bosons as
 also reported that ultrasonic waves
could improve the removal of copper oxide from soil.
A schematic illustration of observations on the residual strain of the lens, which was molded with the application of 20 s of ultrasonic wave
that had an off and on ratio of 0.4 s/0.4 s, is depicted in Fig.
Step 4: The ultrasonic wave
form is recorded for each segment which covers the whole area of the workpiece by using ultrasonic flaw detector with constant parameters such as range, gain and velocity of the couplant.
This generates an ultrasonic wave
, which can be reflected by defects, such as cracks.